# Xiao Peng

My personal blog moves to xiaopeng.me , blogs about design patterns will be synced to here.

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◎ 好东西应该和众人共享，要谢谢本教程的提供者hyde2457，so_so正受益中！

（see from: http://bbs.translators.com.cn/mtsbbs/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=33750, too）

Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style. (Nida)
Translation may be defined as follows:The replacement of textural material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language.(TL). (Catford)
Translation is a process in which the parole of one language is transferred into the parole of another with the content i.e. meaning unchanged. (Barhudarov)

...translation is first a science, which entails the knowledge and verification of the facts and the language that describes them-here, what is wrong, mistakes of truth, can be identified; secondly, it is a skill, which calls for appropriate language and acceptable usage; thirdly, an art, which distinguishes good from undistinguished writing and is the creative, the intuitive, sometimes the inspired, level of the translation; lastly, a matter of taste, where argument ceases, preferences are expressed, and the variety of meritorious translation is the reflection of individual differences. （Newmark）

1） 从译出语和译入语的角度来分类，翻译可分为本族语译为外语外语译为本族语；
2） 从涉及到的语言符号来分类，翻译分为语内翻译（intralingual translation)、语际翻译 (interlingual translation)和符际翻译(intersemiotic translation)；
3) 从翻译的手段来分类，翻译可分为口译（oral interlingual translation）、笔译(written interlingual translation) 和机器翻译(machine translation)；
4) 从翻译的题材来分类，翻译可分为专业文献翻译(translation of English for science and technology)、文学翻译(literary translation)和一般性翻译(practical writing translation)；
5） 从翻译的处理方式来分类，翻译可分为全译（full translation）、摘译（partial translation）和编译（translation plus editing）。

1） 扎实的语言基本功。译者应具有较强的驾驭译出语和译入语的能力，能正确理解原文，熟练运用本族语。试举1例如下：
This large body of men had met on the previous night, despite the elements which were opposed to them, a heavy rain falling the whole of the night and drenching them to the skin.这一大群人头天晚上还是聚到了一起，尽管老天与他们作对，整夜下着倾盆大雨，大家被淋得浑身透湿。（原文中的despite the elements which were opposed to them译作"尽管老天与他们作对"，读起来未免平板滞重、佶屈聱牙，如译作"尽管天公不作美"不仅传神达意，而且文字简练、十分得体。）
2） 具有丰富的文化知识，熟悉以英语为母语的国家的诸如历史、宗教、政治、地理、军事、外交、经济、文艺、科学、风土人情、民俗习惯等方面的社会文化。这有助于正确理解原文，完美地表达原作所要传达的思想内容。例如：
It is a way, he says, of paying tribute to the rock'n'roll era that had a huge impact on him as a child. So why did the idea come off the backburner and on to paper and then celluloid? Celebrity burn-out is the answer. Hollywood's man with the golden touch had had a string of box-office success, from Sleepless in Seattle to Toy Story and Apollo 13, and had won Oscars two years in succession, for Philadelphia and then Forrest Gump.他说这是颂扬那个给童年的他带来巨大影响的摇滚乐时代的一种方式。那么这个想法怎么会由一个不起眼的念头变成了文字，然后又变成了电影呢？答案是名人精疲力尽了。这位点石成金的好莱坞宠儿由《西雅图夜未眠》到《玩具故事》和《阿波罗13号》，获得了一连串的票房成功，并因《费城的故事》和随后的《阿甘正传》连续两年问鼎奥斯卡奖。（rock'n'roll [=rock and roll]一词于1951年因著名的电台音乐节目主持人艾伦·弗里德首次使用而流传开来。backburner是"次要地位；一时不重要的地位"。golden touch是"点金术"。Sleepless in Seattle, Toy Story, Apollo 13, Philadelphia和Forrest Gump是电影片名。Oscar是美国好莱坞电影奖。译者如不了解这些词语的文化含义就很难译好它们。）
3） 熟悉翻译理论和常用技巧，善于灵活运用各种翻译技巧。例如：
They were sons of the men who had left their homes and taken to the mountains with their broad swords by their side.他们都是那些抛妻别子、身带大刀进深山的好汉们的后代。（本例翻译时如不采取颠倒词序的方法，而译作"他们是好汉们的后代，那些好汉们曾经抛妻别子、身带大刀进入深山"，文气就弱多了。
4） 熟悉各种工具书。译者的记忆力和知识面终归是有限的，因此遇到问题就应该知道怎样去查找正确的答案，从哪本书中去寻找。这就要求他应该知道怎样使用各种工具书。常见的工具书有各种单语词典和双语词典、百科全书、史书等。译者应该熟悉这些工具书各自的特点和用法，在翻译时如遇到难题就可求助它们。

（1）The broker's hour is not only crowded, but minutes and seconds are hanging to all the straps and packing both front and rear platforms.经纪人的时间不但是拥挤的，而且分分秒秒都挂在所有的皮带上，包装在前后的月台上。（译文完全直译，难以理解，可改译为：经纪人的时间不但是忙迫得像电车一样的拥挤，而且每分每秒车上所有的吊带都吊满了站立的乘客，在前后的站台上也挤得水泄不通。）(钱歌川：《翻译的基本知识》)
（2）He wanted to learn, to know, to teach.他渴望博学广闻，喜欢追根穷源，并且好为人师。（译文过分意译，偏离原作思想，可改译为：他想学习，增长知识，也愿意把自己的知识教给别人。）(陈廷佑：《英文汉译技巧》)

a. 原文文化过于强盛时译者往往采用译出语为取向的翻译原则，译文文化过于强盛时译者往往采用译入语为取向的翻译原则；
b.学习和借鉴原文文化时译者往往采用译出语为取向的翻译原则，藐视或贬低原文文化时常常采用译入语为取向的翻译原则；
c.译者个人能力或爱好常常影响着对这两种翻译原则的选择。

（1）译文应完全复写出原作的思想（A translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work.）
（2）译文的风格和笔调应与原文的性质相同(The style and manner of writing should be of the same character as that of the original.)
（3）译文应和原作同样流畅(A translation should have all the ease of the original composition.）

"所谓忠实，首先指忠实于原作的内容。译者必须把原作的内容完整而准确地表达出来，不得有任何篡改、歪曲、遗漏阉割或任意增删的现象。……

A.翻译就是翻译意义（Translation means translating meaning.）。意义分为1)指称意义（linguistic meaning）、2)言内意义（linguistic meaning）和3）语用意义（pragmatic meaning）。指称意义是语言符号和它所描绘或叙述的主观世界或客观世界的实体和事件之间的关系，是词语、句子和篇章所反映的客观世界。例如：father (父亲)，table cloth（桌布），The sun rises in the east.(太阳从东方升起。)

（1）He described the claim in alliteration fashion as a composite of fantasy, fallacy and fiction. (他用押头韵的方式把这种要求描绘成"虚幻、虚妄和虚构"的混合物。)（头韵）
（2）The senator picked up his hat and courage.(参议员捡起了帽子鼓起了勇气。)（一语双叙）
（3）Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider. (读书时不可存心诘难作者，不可尽信书上所言，亦不可只为寻章摘句，而应推敲细思。)（排比）

B.语言是一种独特的符号系统。它有着自己最重要的语义系统（即上述三种意义），这一系统体现了语言的功能。英国学者皮特·纽马克(Peter Newmark)将其分为6种：1）信息功能(informative function)，2）表情功能(expressive function),3）祈使功能(vocative function) ，4）美感功能(aesthetic function)，5）酬应功能(phatic function)，6）元语言功能(metalingual function)。
C. 翻译作品质量的好坏或高低应根据译文能在多大程度上再现原文的意义和功能。总的说来，译文再现原文的意义和功能越多质量就越好、越高。然而，在不同的话语或上下文中，上述3类意义及6种语言功能的分量常常是不一样的。有时指称意义、信息功能非常突出（如科技作品），有时语用意义、言内意义及美感功能可能占有非常重要的地位（如文学性话语）。另外，译出语和译入语在3种意义和6种功能方面能同时做到对等的情况极为少见。这就要求译者翻译时应根据具体情况，在不可能把原文所承载的各种意义和功能全部传递给译入语的读者的情况下，善于抓住最重要的意义和功能，将损失减少到最低的程度。
D. 语境（context or situation）和社会结构（social structure）。语境指文本得以具有生命力的环境；而社会结构既是语言相互作用的装饰性背景，又是语义系统生存发展的基本因素。它既影响语言符号的形式和内涵，又影响对语言符号的形式和内涵的阐释。
E. 翻译的过程是解码（decode）和编码(encode)的过程。这一过程具有社会性，因此不能忽视社会效应对这一过程的结果所带来的全面影响。

The winds of November were like summer breezes to him, and his face glowed with the pleasant cold. His cheeks were flushed and his eyes glistened; his vitality was intense, shining out upon others with almost a material warmth. 十一月的寒风，对他就像夏天吹拂的凉风一样。舒适的冷空气使他容光焕发，两颊通红，两眼闪光。他生气勃勃，叫别人感到是一团炙手的火。（英语material warmth字面意思是"物质的温暖"，这里具体译作"一团炙手的火"言明意清，让人一看就懂。）
My dear girls, I am ambitious for you, but not to have you make a dash in the world-marry rich men merely because they are rich, or have splendid houses, which are not homes because love is wanting..亲爱的姑娘们，我对你们期望很高，可并不是叫你们在世上出人头地-要你们去嫁给富人，仅仅因为他们有钱，有奢华的住房，缺少爱情的话，豪华的住房算不得上家。（英语ambitious既可表示"雄心壮志的"意思，也可表示"野心勃勃的"意思，这里选用褒义词"期望很高"翻译比较妥当。）
It was morning, and the new sun sparkled gold across the ripples of gentle sea.

The sea was wonderfully calm and now it was rich with all the color of the setting sun. In the sky already a solitary star twinkled.大海平静得出奇，晚霞映照的绚丽多彩，天空已有孤星闪烁。（英语原文两句译成汉语合为一句。）

To appease their thirst its readers drank deeper than before, until they were seized with a kind of delirium. 为了解渴，读者比以前越饮越深，直到陷入了昏迷状态。

cartoon 卡通片
Hamburger 汉堡包
Benz 奔驰车
clone 克隆（一种无性繁殖方法）
sauna 　桑那浴（源于芬兰的一种蒸汽浴）
hacker 黑客（在信息空间中主动出击，对他人的电脑或网络系统进行诸如窥探、篡改或盗窃保密的数据及程序的过程，并可能由此造成混乱和破坏的电脑迷）
El Nino 厄尔尼诺（现象）（指严重影响全球气候的太平洋热带海域的大风及海水的大规模移动）
Bunsen 本生灯（一种煤气灯）
AIDS 爱滋病（一种性免疫缺损综合症）
（1） Hygeia herself would have fallen sick under such a regimen; and how much more this poor old nervous victim?

*哈奇亚是希腊神话中的健康女神。
（2） Big Ben is ringing the hour.大本钟*在当当报时。
*伦敦英国议院塔上的大钟。
（3） Pizza is my son's favorite American food. 比萨饼是我儿子最喜欢的美国食品。
（4） New York was never Mecca to me.纽约从不是我心中的圣地麦加。
（5） Like a son of Bachus, he can drink up two bottles of whisky at a breath.

*巴赫斯是古希腊神话中的酒神。
(6)  Say you shoot a video that you think is particularly artsy. Beam it out and make a small fortune by charging an untold number of viewers a fee for watching. Peter Jennings would be obsolete.

（7）He saw himself, in a smart suit, bowed into the opulent suites of Ritzes.

*里兹饭店原为瑞士人里兹（1850-1919）开设，以豪华著称。
（8）A dead leaf fell in Soapy's lap. That was Jack Frost's card.

*杰克·弗罗斯特(Jack Frost)是英文里对"寒霜"的拟人称号。
（9）"It is true that the enemy won the battle, but theirs is but a Pyrrhic victory," said the General.

*皮洛士(Pyrrhus)是古希腊伊庇鲁斯国王，曾率兵至意大利与罗马交战，付出惨重代价，打败罗马军队，由此即以"皮洛士式的胜利"一词来借喻惨重的代价。
（10）Nancy Reagan, and not George Gallup, may well have the final say.

*乔治·盖洛普（1901- ）为美国统计学家。他发明的民意测验方法在西方广为流行。他的名字"盖洛普"也就成了这种测验方法的通称。
（11）You look like AL-Capone in that suit.

*阿尔·卡彭是美国历史上一著名歹徒，芝加哥犯罪集团的一首领。
(12) Big Ben is ringing the hour.

*伦敦英国议院塔上的大钟。
(13) It is always inspiring to see a brave man fighting for a lost cause, and I never cease to admire the Jacobitish zeal with which year after year Mr. John Ervine carries on a guerrilla war-fare against the ever-increasing power of tobacco.

*Jacobitish系Jacobite的形容词形式，指1688年被迫退位的英王JamesII的拥护者，James II王室即所谓的 House of Stuart（斯图亚特王室）
(14) He slipped out of the State Department and crossed the Potomac to Arlington, Virginia, where the civil ceremony took place.

Big Apple 大苹果（纽约的别称）
Oval Office 椭圆形办公室（美国白宫总统办公室）
Desert Storm 沙漠风暴（1991年美国领导的多国部队对伊拉克实施的军事打击行动）
（1）It was Friday *and soon they'd go out and get drunk.

*星期五[Friday]为英国的发薪日。如不解释，译入语读者就不会明白英国人为什么要在这一天上街去大吃大喝。
（2）While it may seem to be painting the lily, I should like to add somewhat to Mr.Alistair Cooke's excellent article.

*在西方人眼里，百合花是高贵、贞洁、美丽的象征，故为百合花上色自然是做徒劳无益之事。
(3) Even before they were acquainted, he had admired Osborn in secret. Now he was his valet, his dog, his man Friday.

*星期五(Friday)是《鲁滨逊漂流记》故事中Robinson Crusoe的忠实奴仆。
（4）The man who waters his grass after a good rain is carrying coals to Newcastle.

*纽卡斯尔：英国煤都。
（5）I am as poor as Job, my lord, but not so patient.

*在《圣经》中，约伯以忍耐贫穷著称。
（6） "Oh! Tell us about her. Auntie," cried imogen. " I can just remember her. She's the skeleton in the family cupboard, isn't she?"
"哦，给我们讲一讲她的事儿吧，好姑姑，"伊莫根嚷嚷道，"我几乎记不得她了，她是咱们家衣橱里的骷髅，丑得见不得人，是吗？"
(7) The May-day dance, for instance, was to be discerned on the afternoon under notice, in the disguise of the club revel, or "club-walking" as it was there called.

*五朔节舞：英国风俗，五月一日奏乐吹号，采取树枝、野花、装饰门窗，在草地上竖起五朔柱，围柱跳舞，并选举五朔后。此风古时极盛，现在穷乡僻壤依然可见。
(8) The question she flunked on was: "What is the Constitution of the United States?" The answer she gave was: "A boat."

*the Constitution of the United States指美国宪法，但它也是美国历史上著名战舰"宪法号"的英文名字。
（9） 'When we alighted at this door, a dispute arose with the driver of the cabriolet-'. A loud scream from his wife, at the mention of this word, rendered all further explanation inaudible.
"我们在门口下车的时候，跟那单马双轮车*车夫发生了一点争执，"说到单马双轮车的时候，他的妻子发出了一声又高又尖的叫唤，使得下面的解释都听不见了。
*单马双轮车是出租马车里"最没有派头"的，所以说不得。(译文在此采用脚注，解释了为什么一听到cabriolet，他的妻子就会发出一声尖叫。在19世纪的英国，只有地位低贱的人才会坐这种马车。在这儿，丈夫不慎说漏了嘴，爱好虚荣的妻子觉得蒙受了耻辱。)
（10）All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our life-time on the planet.

*原指美国总统福兰克林·罗斯福执政后推行"新政"的第一个一百天。
(11) At all events the war has done one good thing for us. It's smashed up the power of the aristocracy. The Boer War started it, and 1914 put the lid on.

*布尔战争：1899-1902年英国人与布尔人之间的战争。

as rich as Croesus 十分富有(Croesus 是公元6世纪小亚细亚吕底亚国王,十分富有.如直译为 "像科里瑟斯一样富有",倒让读者十分费解,因为读者不知 "科里瑟斯"为何许人, 并且后人用此词时,常常意重于典,所以不如释义为 "十分富有", 简单明白.)
bring down the house 全场喝彩(不能直译为 "把房子都弄倒了")
（1） It's not easy to become a member of that club-they want people who have plenty of money to spend, not just every Tom, Dick, and Harry.

（Tom, Dick, Harry都是英美常见的人名，这里泛指任何人，相当于汉语中的"张三、李四、王五"。所以，这里不宜直译为"汤姆、迪克、哈里"。）
（2） A Red Light for Scofflaws

（这是美国Time《时代》周刊1983年一篇文章的标题。red light本意是红灯，指停车信号、危险信号。文中指出美国社会中蔑视法令的现象已到了触目惊心的地步，必须采取措施加以制止。译成"玩忽法令之风不可长"一目了然，言简意明。）
（3） As with Black Power the burgeoning Red Power movement has two components, one cultural, the other political.

（这里Red Power显然是从Black Power黑权主义，黑权运动]类比出来的。如果译者不释明其义，而直译为"红色权力"，读者定会把它理解为"红色政权"或"XXX(违禁词汇，某个伟大，光荣，正确的组织)权力"。）
（4） Our son must go to school. He must break out of the pot that holds us in.

（"break out of the pot that holds us in"，重意不重形，译为"出人头地"比"打破这个把我们关在里面的罐子"意思来得明白简洁。）
（5） Like many other Southerners, I came to seek my fortune in one of those pot-at-the-end-of-the-rainbow factories along Euclid Avenue.

（根据英语传说，如果人们找到了彩虹与地面交界之处，并在那儿挖掘，就会挖到一罐金子。但这只是人们的幻想，是根本不可能发生的事情。所以，此处重意不重典，自然这里pot-at-the-end-of-the-rainbow factories是指那些根本不可能给南方人提供工作的工厂。）
（6） The study had a Spartan look.

（古希腊斯巴达人以生活简朴而著称。可看出，此处重意不重典，所以只用翻译出其意。）
（7） When I go around on speaking engagements, they all expect me to assume a Quaker-Oats look.我应邀外出演讲时，他们都指望我摆出一付毫无表情、一本正经的面孔。
（Quaker-Oats是欧美一种有名的麦片商标，商标中画的老头模样毫无表情，我国读者对此并不熟悉。因此，此处意重于形，翻译时得采用释义手法。）
（8） Early Reagan was a mirror image of early Carter.里根上台时在做法上跟执政初期的卡特毫无二致。
（a mirror image 如直译为"镜子里的形象"，就让人感到非常别扭，远不如"毫无二致"自然。）
（9） She scolded her maid and was as cross as two sticks.她骂斥自己的女仆，而且脾气非常不好。
（如直译为"像两根棍子一样暴躁"，让人不知所云，并且此处重意不重形，翻译时只好采用释义法。）
（10） Up Broadway he turned, and halted at a glittering café, where are gathered together nightly the choicest products of the grapes, the silkworm and the protoplasm.

（文中the choicest products of the grapes, the silkworm and the protoplasm如直译为"葡萄、蚕和原生质最精良的产物"，难令读者明白其意。这里，grape（葡萄）, silkworm（蚕）, protoplasm（原生质）属于修饰学上的提喻(synecdoche)，用原材料分别指它们的制成品──酒、衣服与人。翻译时只得舍弃原文形象，直接释明其意。）
（11） Little in his childhood suggested he would someday become a bridge across Latin and Anglo cultures.

（Anglo culture如直译为"盎格鲁·撒克逊文化"，则不够通俗，典型的英国人常常也被称为"盎格鲁·撒克逊人"。）
（12） Words are not themselves a reality but only representation of it, and the King's English, like the Anglo-French of the Normans, is a class representation of reality.

（King's English不能直译为"国王英语"，它是指标准英语，相当于汉语中的"普通话"。）
(13). The young girl thumbed her way to the passing cars.

(thumbed her way 为英语手势语,意为 "站在路边向来往的汽车摆动着竖起的拇指表示她要搭车",在汉语中没有这种手势语,翻译时只有采用释义法,以便让我国读者明白其意.)
(14). At 19 he had commenced one of those careers attractive and inexplicable to ordinary mortals for whom a single bankruptcy is good as a feast.

(good as a feast 如直译为 "像丰盛的宴席一样好",意思正好反了.直接释明其意 "叫人够呛",地道通顺.)
(15) She and her mother are as like as two peas.

(as like as two peas 不能译为 "像两颗豌豆一样相似")
(16) Look at the chaps in politics and business, whose whole lives were passed in skating on thin ice, and getting knighted for it.

( skating on thin ice 如直译为 "如履薄冰", 让人产生谨小慎微的联想, 与原意不符, 故译其意 "在风险中度过".)
（17） Mr. Kingsley and his Red Brick boys will have to look to their laurels.

（Red Brick又称Red Brick Universities，指英国除牛津、剑桥大学以外的其他地方性二流大学。因其建筑主要是红砖砌成，不象牛津、剑桥的建筑均为古色古香的石块所建成，故得此名。
(18) Clearly a tug of war over key policies continues between the pragmatic and ideological camps.

(tug of war 本意为 "拔河", 在此处为比喻用法, 指 "双方势均力敌,争吵不休", 直译显然不妥, 故采用释义法.)

(1) To the east and the south a faint pink is spreading.

(2) The sun rose thinly from the sea.

(3) A stream was winding its ways through the valley into the river.

(4) I was extremely worried about her, but this was neither the place nor the time for a lecture or an argument.

(5) It was a nova!

(1) I had imagined it to be merely a gesture of affection, but it seems it is to smell the lamb and make sure that it is her own. 原来我以为这不过是一种亲热的表示，但是现在看来，这是为了闻一闻羊羔的味道，来断定是不是自己生的。
(2) I was, and remain, grateful for the part he played in my release. 我的获释是他成全的，对此我过去很感激，现在仍然很感激。
(3) The old man said, " They say his father was a fisherman. Maybe he was as poor as we are."

(4) The old man had taught the boy to fish and the boy loved him.

(5) English prose is elaborate rather than simple. It was not always so.

(1) The lion is the king of animals.狮子是百兽之王。
(2) I saw bubbles rising from under the water.我看见一个个水泡从水下升起。
(3) The very earth trembled as with the tramps of horses and murmur of angry men.

(4) The mountains began to throw their long blue shadows over the valley.

(5) An individual human existence should be like a river-small at first, narrowly contained within its banks, and rushing passionately past boulders and over waterfalls.

(1) I judge I would saw out and leave that night if pap got drunk enough, and I reckoned he would.

(2) She ate little. Food sickened her, and I think much of life too.

(3) When I turned around, John was grinning, expectant, studying my face intently to see if he had pleased me. He had.

(4) Courage in excess becomes foolhardiness, affection weakness, thrift avarice.

(1) When I came to I was in the water, swimming automatically, though I was about two thirds drowned.

(2) He doubtlessly expected hugs, tablefuls of food, tears, laughter, and conversation followed by more conversation, then hugs and more hugs all over again, without end.

(3) In the evening, after the banquets, the concerts and the table tennis exhibitions, he would work on the drafting of the final communique.

(4) These soon told her,… how easy it was and how little it interfered with life's affairs to go and see one's grave.

(5) The sky is clear blue now the sun has flung diamonds down on meadow and bank and wood.

(1) These early cars were slow, clumsy, and inefficient.

darkness 漆黑一团
complacency 自满情绪
backwardness 落后状态
(1) After all preparations were made, the planes were flown across the U.S. to San Francisco.

(2) Recourse to arms is not the best solution to a quarrel between countries.

(3)Without a sense of your fault, how can repentance and amendment be expected？如果对自己的错误都不认识，怎么能悔恨和改正呢？（增补"如果"使得原含蓄条件句中的隐性含义明白无误。）

(1) Poor little tender heart! And so it goes on hoping and beating, and longing and trusting.

(2) Their host carved, poured, served, cut bread, talked, laughed, proposed healths.

(3) Only very slight and very scattering ripples of half-hearted hand-clapping greeted him.

(4) And her thoughtfulness! If the night was anyway cold or wet or windy there was sure to be a little tumbler of punch ready for him.

(1) I know my friends from the feel of their faces.

(2) Ice is a solid. If we heat it, it melts and becomes water.

(3) John got up very early in the morning. He put on his jacket, sat down at his desk and began to do his homework.

(4) But at the present moment the whole road looked rather pretty, for the sun had just set in splendor, and the equalities of rent were drowned in a saffron afterglow.

(5) He had a shelf there, where he kept his Bohemian papers and his pipes and tobacco, and his shears and needles and thread and tailor's thimble.

(6) Most of the people who appear most often and most gloriously in the history books are great conquerors and generals and soldiers…

(7) The city has a dense manufacturing population.这个城市有稠密的工业人口。
(8)The products should be sampled to check their quality before they leave the factory.

(9) The mother and the eldest daughter weeded the ridges, passing before the others…A younger son, of twelve years, brought sea sand in a donkey's creels from a far corner of the field. They mixed the sand with the black clay. The fourth child, still almost an infant, staggered about near his mother, plucking weeds slowly and offering them to his mother as gifts.

(10) Come if you like.高兴来就来。
(11) As it is late, let us go to bed.不早啦，睡吧！
(12) I framed the words in my mind: "Pardon me, but have I done something to offend you?"

(13). You hear it from the trackers, a more breathless chant, as they pull desperately against the current, half a dozen of them perhaps if they are, taking up a wupan, a couple of hundred if they are hauling a splendid junk, its square sail set, over a rapid.

(14). If you are a twinkler, you have the ability to walk into a room and bring the sunshine with you, making everyone else want to bask in it.

(1) I felt a trifle shy at the thought of presenting myself to a total stranger with the announcement that I was going to sleep under his roof, eat his food and drink his whisky, till another boat came in to take me to the port for which I was bound.

(2) Her dark eyes made little reflected stars. She was looking at him as she was always looking at him when he awakened.

(3) University applicants who had worked at a job would receive preference over those who had not.

(4)There was no snow, the leaves were gone from the trees, the grass was dead.

(5) There was not a sound in her---and around us nothing moved, nothing lived, not a canoe on the water, not a bird in the air, not a cloud in the sky.

(6) The problem of alternative fuels of vehicle is one problem we shall approach.

(7) There are some things that I have happily seen of the wondrous way of the spider.

(译文省去 "there are some things that"后，文字简约，表达生动，意思明确。)
(8) In actual fact, the United States is pursuing a policy of encouraging the aggressor…

(9) He was smooth and agreeable.

(10) Standing as it does on a high hill, the church commands a new view.

(11) To learn is not an easy matter and to apply what one has learned is even harder.

（一） 英语名词、介词、形容词或副词转换为汉语动词
(1) The cultivation of a hobby and new forms of interest is therefore a policy of first importance to a public man. 因此，对于一个从事社会活动的人来讲，培养一种爱好和新的情趣方式，乃是至关重要的对策。
(2) The Red Army Men marched on bravely against the piercing wind. 红军冒着刺骨的寒风英勇前进。
(3) All were unconscious that this experience was a test of character; and, when the first excitement was over, felt that they had done well, and deserved praise. 大家都没有认识到这番经验却是一次个性的考验，最初的兴奋过去以后，又觉得自己已经干得不错了，理应受到赞扬。
(4) He appeared at her side, breathing audibly, a moment after she reached the stop. She gazed ahead, rigid. 她到车站不一会儿，他便出现在她的身旁，听见他喘息的声音。她凝视着前方，表情严峻。
(5) Yet to both classes the need of an alternative outlook, of a change of atmosphere, of a diversion of effort, is essential. 然而，对所有这两种类型的人来说，变换一下看法、改变一下环境和转换一下注意力都是最基本的需要。
(6) …and it was on the first stage of this journey, in Kenya, that she received the news of her father's death and her own accession to the throne. ……就在此行的第一站肯尼亚，她接到了父亲去世并由她本人继承王位的消息。
（二） 英语动词、副词转换为汉语名词、形容词
(1) The inflammation is characterized by red, swelling, fever, and pain. 炎症的特点是红、肿、热、痛。
(2) The visiting guests were escorted to the Yellow Crane Tower last Sunday. 上星期天，来访的客人和陪同人员一起参观了黄鹤楼。
(3) Our government shows great concern for the Chinese residents abroad. 我国政府十分关心海外华侨。
(4) Formality has always characterized their relationship. 他们之间的关系，有一个特点，就是以礼相待。
(5) Most US spy satellites are designed to burn up in the earth's atmosphere after completing their missions. 美国绝大多数间谍卫星，按其设计，是在完成使命后，在大气层中焚毁。
（三） 英语名词转换为汉语形容词、副词
(1) He added: "I understand and respect those views, but I deeply believe in the correctness of my decision." 他还说："我理解并尊重他们的看法，但我深信我的决定是正确的。"
(2) They came back game and glee. 他们兴高采烈地回来了。

(1) You can always tell the somebodies from the nobodies at a cocktail party. The somebodies come late.在鸡尾酒会上人们常常可以看出大人物和无名小卒来。那些迟到的就是大人物。（主语转换为表语；谓语转换为主语）
(2) With the fear of largely imaginary plots against his leadership, his self-confidence seemed totally to desert him.

(3) Cheerful, efficient and warm-hearted, they will do everything to make your journey smooth and comfortable.

(4) Her presence of mind had not completely deserted her; but she could not have trusted herself to speak.

(5) This is the unexpected kind of remark that makes me like the colonel; there is a touch of rough poetry about him.

(1) Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand, signed the Emancipation Proclamation.100年以前，一位伟大的美国人签署了解放宣言，我们现在就站在他象征性的庇荫中。
(2) A dozen and a half aeroplanes poured out into the airport during that five minutes.

(3) Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation.
87年前，我们的先辈在这个大陆上创建了一个新的国家。
(4) They had a dozen children, six boys and six girls, in seventeen years.

（二） 由于英汉两种语言在表述角度上不尽相同，翻译时常常有必要转换角度，才能使意思明白清楚、表达自然。例如：
(1) She has been a widow only for six months. 她丈夫死了至今才不过半年。
（原文是从妻子的角度加以陈述的，而译文是从丈夫的角度加以陈述的。如果不改变表达方式，而搬用原来的表达方式，那译文就是："她只当了6个月的寡妇。"这就会给人以错觉：她很快就改嫁了。）
(2) ──Is there a special rate by the month?
──Yes, there is a 10% discount.
──按月计算有什么优惠吗？
──有，可以打9折。

(1) Away ran the boy.男孩跑开了。
(2) Slowly climbs the summer moon.夏天的月亮慢慢地爬上来了。

（一）英语正面表达转换为汉语反面表达
frost-free refrigerator无霜冰箱
Freeze! 别动！
Wet paint! 油漆未干！
mortally ill 不治之症
(1) The proposal was carried by a very narrow margin. 这项建议差点通不过。
(2)We believe that the younger generation will prove worthy of our trust. 我们相信，年轻一代将不会辜负我们的信任。
(3) He went to an outdoor phone booth and dialed Chicago, then New York, then San Francisco. Silence. Silence. Silence. 他到一个户外公用电话亭，先给芝加哥、又给纽约、旧金山打了电话。

(4) As a place to live, it left much to be desired. As a secret training base for a revolutionary new plane, it was an excellent site, its remoteness effectively masking its activity. 作为居住的地方，这里有许多不足之处，但作为改革性的新飞机秘密训练基地，却是非常理想的。因为它地处边陲，人们不易发觉其中的活动。
(5) The pictures that linger in his mind, called up in a moment by such sensations as the smell of roses or of new-mown hay, are of a simpler nature. 然而，萦绕心头的画面，那些一经嗅到玫瑰花香或新鲜干草的气息便会倏地闯入记忆的情景，其实并不复杂。
(6) As he sipped his coffee, he opened a still damp morning paper; and began reading. 他一面喝咖啡，一面翻开油墨未干的晨报，看了起来。
(7) Father's attitude toward anybody who wasn't his kind used to puzzle me. 以前我总不懂父亲为什么对那些脾气跟他不一样的人采取那么个态度。
(8) Sadly, Edward died before he could see the new church, but his beautiful tomb is still there, with the tombs of the Kings and Queens of England who came after him. 遗憾的是，爱德华未能看见新教堂就去世了，但是他那幽雅的坟墓和嗣后的英国国王和王后的坟墓还都留在那里。
（二）英语反面表达转换为汉语正面表达
(1) You can't be too careful. 你要特别小心。
(2) The significance of these incidents wasn't lost on us. 这些事件引起了我们的重视。
(3) Such flights couldn't long escape notice. 这类飞行迟早会被人发觉的。
(4) The human system can hold out for a while against the gas from a leaking, damped-down coal stove, but soon after unconsciousness comes death. 煤气若是从封上火的煤炉漏出，人体可以忍受一些时候，但人昏迷之后，不用很久就会死亡。
(5) But there is another story, a family saga, that may turn out to be important to unlocking the mystery of what actually happened between Lewinsky and the President. 但是，莱温斯基和总统之间究竟发生了什么事，另外一个故事，即家史，最终对解开这个谜十分重要。
(6) Maintaining credibility requires confronting potential adversaries with the objective, unambiguous facts of our counter-balancing military capabilities, our political strengths and economic advantages, and our clear resolution to use these for our defense if necessary. 保持这种可靠性需要以下客观的、明确的事实来对付潜在的对手：我们达到平衡的军事能力、我们的政治实力和经济优势以及我们必要时使用这些手段进行自卫的毫不含糊的决心。

（一） 被动转换为主动

(1) Heat is constantly produced by the body as a result of muscular and cellular activity. 由于肌肉和细胞活动的结果，身体不断地产生热。
(2) In a moment he will turn and see us, and his face will be lighted by a smile so radiant you'll feel warm all the way through..过一会儿他会转过身来看着我们，那时他脸上会泛出灿烂的微笑，让你全身都感到温暖。
(3) With the development of speech, the number of occasions producing sudden experiences of pleasure increased, and since laughter was closely associated with speech, man had this means of expressing his pleasure. 随着说话的发展 ，产生突然感受愉快的机会增多了，并且，由于笑与说话密切相关，人类就有了这种表达愉快的手段。
(4) In future conflicts, similar logistical problems are likely to be repeated-----raising the prospect of mass confusion in a full-scale mobilization. 在未来的冲突中，类似的后勤问题大概还会重复出现，从而在一次大规模的动员中有可能出现大乱。

(1) When we were first captured, my own reaction was mainly one of fear and suspicion. 我们刚被俘时，我的感觉是又害怕又怀疑。
(2) The visitor was flattered and impressed.客人受宠若惊，深为感动。
（二） 主动转换为被动

(1) His acceptance into the Party is a quite natural thing. 他被吸收到党内是完全应该的。
(2) Appalled by what he had done, Bob rushed to the parapet and flung himself on the rocks below, where the sea claimed him immediately.鲍勃对他所做的一切感到震惊，他冲到护墙处，纵身跳到下面的岩石上，立即被大海所吞没。

(1) They felt that it was much easier and safer to rob their own people, for they knew that white policemen never really searched diligently for Negroes who committed crimes against other Negroes.他们觉得抢劫他们的同种人要安全得多，因为他们知道，如果黑人侵犯的是黑人，白人警察便从来不认真搜捕。（定语从句--条件状语从句）
(2) Her great grief in this relation was that her only child, on whose education no expense had been and would be spared, was now old enough to perceive these deficiencies in his mother. 这一方面给她造成了极大的苦闷，也就是有关她的独生子的问题。虽然过去和今后在儿子的教育费用上既不曾也不会省掉什么钱，然而如今他的年纪已经不小，能注意他母亲的这些缺点了。（定语从句--让步状语从句）

as timid as a hare 胆小如鼠
（在西方文化中，兔子是胆小的象征，而在我国，兔子却象征着机警敏捷。人们常说："静若处子，动若脱兔。"鼠在我国才是胆小的象征，所以翻译时直接加以归化。）
at a stone's throw一箭之遥
wet like a drown rat 湿如落汤鸡
as stupid as a goose 蠢得像猪
as stubborn as a mule 犟得像牛
seek a hare in a hen's nest 缘木求鱼
as dumb as an oyster 守口如瓶
cry up wine and sell vinegar 挂羊头，卖狗肉
put back the clock 开倒车
talk horse 吹牛
kill the goose that lays the golden eggs 杀鸡取卵
drink like a fish 牛饮
(1) Once the wife of a parson, always the wife of a parson.

(2)One boy is a boy, two boys half a boy, three boys no boy.

(3) I was limp as a dish rag. My back felt as through it had been beaten with wires.

(原文中limp as a dish rag，如直译为"像洗碟布一样柔软"，既不地道，又让人产生一种较恶心的感觉，不如用汉语中常说的"软得像一团棉花"加以归化。)
(4) Everybody said how well the new Secretary was doing, but old Mr. Carr said shortly, "Yes. New brooms sweep clean."

(原文new brooms sweep clean的字面意思是"新扫把扫得干净"，比喻"新任职的人干得好"，和汉语中的"新官上任三把火"异曲同工，貌离神合。)
(5) Among the blind the one-eyed man is King.

(6) Last night I heard him driving his pig to market.

(7) Who would have thought of Mr.Mottram doing so well? And so many of his friends, too, that used to stay here? We were entertaining angels unawares.

(8) It was, as Bill afterwards expressed it, "during a moment of temporary mental apparition", but we didn't find that out till later.

（apparition在原文中是鬼魂或幽灵出现的意思。mental apparition直译是"心中有鬼"，这就很容易给人造成误解，因此需要多少将原形象适当地转换一下。）
(9) They will be ice-skating in hell the day, when I vote the aid for them.

（ice-skating in hell如译成"在地狱里滑冰"就很难为中国读者所理解和接受。）
(10). "Until her husband won the pools, she was the most commonplace, dowdy, illiterate creature imaginable, but now that she dresses herself up like a society queen and nearly always remembers to sound her aitches, people are already beginning to forget what she was like before.
"Fine feathers make fine birds."
"过去没有比她更平平常常、无知无识而又邋邋遢遢的了，自从她男人赢得全部赌注以后，她打扮得象个社交皇后，总是记住发H的音，人们开始忘记她以前是什么样子了。"
"人靠衣裳马靠鞍嘛。"
(11) I'd much rather see her once or twice and not do anything about it---what could I do about it anyway? She's a bit out of my class, don't you think? If I did try to do anything, I'd only get sent off with a flea in my ear.

(原文a flea in one's ear的字面意思是"耳朵上有个跳蚤"，用来比喻"讥讽的话，刺耳的话"。send sb. off with a flea in one's ear意思是"用讥讽的话气走某人"，与汉语"碰一鼻子灰"意思相近，但如译为"用讥讽话气走某人"，则过于平淡，远不如"碰一鼻子灰"生动、俏皮。)
(12) He was so fond of talking that his comrades nicknamed him "magpie".

(英语中 "喜鹊" 喻义 "唠叨、饶舌", 但在汉语中 "喜鹊" 却象征着 "喜事、吉祥", 而 "麻雀" 表示 "唠叨、饶舌", 所以用归化法.)
(13) There's a people's court waiting for him. His God-damned head is going to be separated from his God-damned neck.

(原文God-damned意为"该死的"，但如译成"该死的头"、"该死的脖子"远不如"狗头"、"狗脖子"痛快。)
(14) I'm a diplomat, a linguist, altogether a bespectacled cream puff.

(原文cream puff的字面意思是"奶油松饼"，比喻"中看不中用的人"，和汉语中的"银样邋枪头"意思相近。但如直译成"奶油松饼"，则不易为汉语读者所接受。归化后，既能保存原意，又能为汉语读者所接受。)

(1) Beauty lies in lover's eyes.

(此处就不宜归化为具有浓厚汉语文化色彩的 "情人眼里出西施". 译者怎能把中国古代美女西施搬到西方作品中去呢?)
(2) Many heads are better than one.

(此处就不宜归化为具有浓厚汉语文化色彩的 "三个臭皮匠,顶个诸葛亮".如把历史人物诸葛亮搬到西方作品中去,总让人感到不伦不类的.)
(3) Never offer to teach fish to swim.

(此处也不宜归化为具有浓厚汉语文化色彩的 "不要班门弄斧"、 "不要关公面前耍大刀".)

（一） 单词分译

(1)We recognize that China's long-term modernization program understandably and necessarily emphasizes economic growth.

(2) Then and there he named the startled General lying wounded on his cot the new Commander in Chief of the Airforce…

(3) A movie of me leaving that foxhole would look like a shell leaving a rifle.

(4) Yet it is painfully apparent that millions of Americans who would never think of themselves as law-breakers, let alone criminals, are taking increasing liberties with the legal codes that are designed to protect and nourish their society.

（原文中painfully apparent如照字面译成"痛心地明显的"，不合汉语表达习惯，将painfully单译成句，既突出了重点，表明作者对这一现象感到痛心的心情，又使语言自然流畅。）
(5) At present people have a tendency to choose the safety of the middle-ground reply.

（choose the safety of the middle-ground reply如机械直译成"选择不偏不倚回答问题的安全"，语言晦涩难懂。将safety分译出来则较好地解决了这一问题。）
(6) Auntie Julia vainly asked each of her neighbours in turn to tell her what Gabriel had said.

（二） 短语分译

(1) These cheerful little trams, dating back to 1873, chug and sway up the towering hills with bells ringing and people hanging from every opening.

(2) The military is forbidden to kill the vessel, a relatively easy task.

(3) Invitingly green Angel Island, once a military installation, contains meandering trails and picnic spots ideal for a day's excursion.

（三） 句子分译

A. 简单句的分译
(1) Daybreak comes with thick mist and drizzle.

(2) But another round of war in the region clearly would put strains on international relations.但是，如果该地区再次发生战争，显然会使国际关系处于紧张状态。
B. 并列复合句的分译

(1) I sat with his wife in their living room, looking out the glass doors to the backyards, and there was Allen's pool, still covered with black plastic that had been stretched across it for winter.

(2) On her once familiar street, as in any unused channel, an unfamiliar queerness had silted up; a cat wove itself in and out of railings, but no human eye watched Mrs Drover's return.

(3) The entire cable-car system recently got an overhaul after more than a century of operations, so you are on firm ground even if the streets seem to be tilting beneath you.

(4) The recruitment of Chinese labor was not universally accepted in racially conscious 19th century America and some white workers were unsettled by their appearance in large numbers.

C. 主从复合句的分译

(1) One day, while out on the bleak moors, Pip is startled by a hulking, menacing man who threatens him if he does not bring him some food immediately.

(2) All this had come to an end in 1905 when the medical mission was dissolved and several of Mother's colleagues were killed in the uprising.
1905年，这一切都宣布结束了。在一次暴动中，妈妈的几个同事牺牲了，医疗队也解散了。 （when处切分）
D. 其他情况的分译

(1) Suddenly the door bursts open and the Time Traveler appears, dirty, disheveled, and bedraggled, with a nasty cut on his chin.

(2) The boy and the woman were already seated by spread table-cloth when the man came down to them, dressed in his business suit and vest and tie and hat as if he expected to meet someone along the way.

（一） 简单句与简单句的合并

(1) She is intelligent, ambitious and hard-working. She is also good at solving problems.

(2) The door was unlocked. She went inside and sat in a stupor. She was near collapse, barely able to move her swollen feet.

(3) I pulled up a chair and sat down. I sat with my legs wide apart at first. But this struck me as being irreverent and too familiar. So I put my knees together and let my hands rest loosely on them.

（二） 复合句的合并

(1) We are going to have to be prepared to operate with people who are nuts.

(2) And he found himself trying to suppress a bitterness that was soul-destroying.

(3) Many people have married whose chances to do so were much inferior to Miss Martha's.

(4) The diagnosis seems in every case to correspond exactly with all the sensations that I have ever felt.

（一）从语法角度来看

(1) He is a teacher of English.(他教英语。)（名词转成动词）
(2) He is physically weak.他身体很弱。（副词转成名词）
(3) She was gazing across the sea, apparently ignorant of him.她正在眺望大海，显然没有看见他。（形容词转成动词）
(4) The road to development is long but we are firmly on it.发展的道路是漫长的，但是我们已经坚定地走上这条道路。（介词转成动词）
(5) In fact, the Lexicographer's name was always on the lips of this majestic woman, and a visit he had paid to her was the cause of her reputation and her fortune.这位威风凛凛的女人嘴边老是挂着字汇学家的名字，原来他曾经拜访过她一次，从此使她名利双收。（名词词组转成名词词组，名词词组转成主谓词组）

(1) They have not done so well ideologically, however, as organizationally.但是，他们的思想工作没有他们的组织工作做得好。（副词转成名词词组）
(2) Angola was the most identifiable trouble spot in South West Africa.安哥拉是西南非洲的麻烦之地，这是大家最容易看得出来的。（形容词转成分句）
（二）从词义角度来看

A. 完全对应。这类英汉词语多为专有名词、术语或普通名词，其数量极为有限。如：
CIA（美国）中央情报局 smog烟雾 carob角豆树 cardia贲门
carbinol甲醇 zoology动物学 holoscope 全息照相机
B. 部分对应。有许多英汉语词语在词义上只是部分对应。它们的意义范围有广狭之分、抽象与具体之分、一般与个别之分。如：
uncle（广义）-叔父，伯父，姑父，姨父，舅父（狭义）
milk 奶（抽象）；人奶，牛奶，羊奶（具体）；film胶卷（一般），影片（个别）

vinegar： 有"不高兴，坏脾气"的内涵意义

C. 不对应。由于文化差异，英语有些词语所表达的意义在汉语中尚无确切的对应词来表达。它们主要是一些具有文化含义的词语，翻译时多用加注或释义。如：
hippie嬉皮士 breaker跳布瑞克舞者，跳霹雳舞者
rigjacker劫持近海油井设备的人；eggathon吃煮硬了的鸡蛋的竞赛
congressperson美国国会（尤其是众议员院）议员（男议员或女议员）
D. 交叉对应。英语中有许多多义词，其各个意义分别与汉语中几个不同的词语对应。如下面各例中的light一词就是这样：
light music轻音乐（light=intended chiefly to entertain）
light loss轻微的损失（light=not heavy）；light heart轻松的心情（light=relaxed）
light car轻便汽车（light=having little weight）；light step轻快的步伐（light=gentle）
light manners轻浮的举止（light=frivolous）；light outfit轻巧的设备（light=handy）
light work轻松的工作（light=requiring little effort）
light voice轻柔的声音（light= soft）

(1) The rain had cleaned the air.雨后空气新鲜。（名词）
(2) Don't air your troubles too often.别老是诉苦。（动词）

(1) He preferred the products of old brand to the new flashy.他宁可要老牌产品，而不要质量差的新产品。(抽象-具体)
(2) There is a mixture of the tiger and ape in the character of the imperialists.

(3) She said, "He is a lightly discriminating man." 她说，"他是个很爱挑剔的买主。"（一般-个别）
(4) I used to be a politician. But since I came back from Peking, I have been a statesman. 我过去一直是吃政治饭的，但是，自从我从北京回来以后，我已成了一名政治家。（贬义；褒义）

winds风（普通文体）；风云（文学文体）
red flower红花（普通文体）；红艳艳的花儿（文学文体）
green willow绿柳（普通文体）；柳色青青（文学文体）

...yet, as it sometimes happens that a person departs his life, who is really deserving of the praises the stone-cutter curves over his bones; who is good Christian, a good parent, child, wife or husband; who actually does have a disconsolate family to mourn his loss;...
……不过偶然也有几个死人当得起石匠刻在他们朽骨上的好话。真的是虔诚的教徒，慈爱的父母，孝顺的儿女，贤良的妻子，尽职的丈夫，他们家里的人也的确哀思绵绵地追悼他们。(本句中的good并没有用"好"字来译。)

rural America美国农村；a new international economic order国际经济新秩序
(1) She stopped listening. She felt as though she had been slapped to the extreme outer edge of life, into a cold darkness.她再也听不下去了。她觉得似乎自己狠狠地让人击了一掌，给摔到生活的最外的危险边缘，推进又冷又黑的地方。

His idea is that we clean the floor first.他的意见是我们先清扫地板。（英语中that 引导的是一个表语从句，而汉语中"我们先清扫地板"只是一个主谓结构（词组）作宾语。）

I woke up in the middle of night.我在半夜里醒了。

(1) They played chess in high spirits at the club yesterday.

(2) She lives at 34 Rue Temple, Geneva, Switzerland.

useful books有用的书 a man of fifty years old五十岁的人

Because he was ill, he had to stay at home.因为他病了，所以不得不呆在家里。

Feeling tired, John went to bed early.(formal)
John went to bed early because he felt tired.(common core)
John felt tired, so he went to bed early.(informal)

（一） 简单句的翻译

(1) I bought the car.我买了这部车。（转换成汉语简单句）
(2) But this naval competition strained the Liberal Government's principles as well as their budgets.但是这种海军竞赛使自由党政府的原则无法自圆其说，也使其预算捉襟见肘。（转换成汉语联合复句的并列句）
(3) Law enforcement cannot responsibly stand aloof.司法部门如果对此不闻不问，那就是没有尽到责任。（转换成汉语偏正复句的假设句）
(4) Differences between the social systems of states shall not be an obstacle to their approachment and co-operation.各国社会制度不同，但不应妨碍彼此接近与相互合作。（转换成汉语偏正复句的转折句）
(5) This was an intelligently organized and fervent meeting in a packed Town Hall, with Mr. Strong in the chair.这是一次精心组织起来的会议。市政厅里济济一堂，热情洋溢，主持会议的是斯特朗先生。（转换成两个汉语句子）
（二） 复合句的翻译

(1) Whether an object will sink or float depends on its density.物体在水中的沉浮取决于物体的比重。（名词分句--转换为汉语单句,名词分句成主语）
(2) I owe it to you that I didn't die.我没死，全靠你。（名词分句--宾语从句转换为汉语并列句）
(3) It worried her much that her daughter should stay up so late.她很着急，因为她女儿很晚都不睡觉。（名词分句--主语从句转换为状语从句）

(1) John liked my sister, who was warm and pleasant.他喜欢我那热情欢快的妹妹。（定语分句--前置定语）
(2) It seems to me that there are two causes, of which one goes much deeper than the other.我认为原因有二，而两者之间又有明显的深浅之分。（定语分句--并列分句）
(3) We know that a cat, whose eyes can take in many more rays of light than our eyes, can see clearly in the night. 我们知道，由于猫的眼睛比我们人的眼睛能吸收更多的光线，所以猫在黑夜也能看得很清楚。（定语分句--原因）
(4) There are many people who want to see the film. 许多人要看这部电影。(定语分句--独立句子)

（三） 长句翻译

(1) …This is nonsense but with it organs of the popular Press played upon the emotions of their readers so successfully that many candidates for Parliament were afraid to support abolition for fear of losing votes and the result was the muddle-headed Homicide Act of 1957 which made murder with robbery a capital crime and allowed the prisoner to escape the gallows. ……这是胡说八道，但一些在大众中颇有影响的报刊却利用它大肆煽动读者的情绪，许多竟选国会议员的人由于害怕失去选票而不敢支持废除死刑，其结果就是1957年通过的糊里糊涂的《凶杀法案》。根据这个法案，抢劫杀人犯要判死刑，而投毒杀人犯却可不判死刑。（顺译法）
(2) From radio-active water and soil around a nuclear-weapons plant in Colorado to man-made deserts in Soviet Central Asia, the world is peppered with examples of what poor education or unneighborly attitudes can do to the planet that must feed and clothe us all.如果人们受教育不够或不能善待环境，他们会对人类赖以生存的这个星球做出些什么事来呢？全世界到处都有这样的例子：从科罗拉多州核武器工厂周围幅射活跃的水土到原苏联中亚地区的人为沙漠。（逆译法）
(3) Many man-made substances are replacing certain natural materials because either the quantity of the natural products can not meet our ever-increasing requirement, or more often, because the physical property of the synthetic substance, which is the common name for man-made materials, have been chosen, and even emphasized, so that it would be of the greatest use in the fields in which it is to be applied.合成材料通常称为人造材料。许多人造材料正逐步取代某些天然材料，这或许是因为天然制品的数量不能满足人们日益增长的需求，但更多的则是因为人们看中了合成材料的某种物理性能，并充分发挥这些性能，以便使合成材料在其应用领域中最大限度地发挥作用。（综合法）

（一） 英汉段落比较

Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins and ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was minted twenty-three centuries ago. Another important characteristic of gold is its usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications. The most recent use of gold is in astronaut's suits. Astronauts wear gold-plated heat shields for protection outside the spaceship. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty, but also for its utility.

（二）段落翻译

It may be that I am a pessimist, for spring it is, not autumn, that makes me sad. Spring has always rightly been identified with youth, and the sorrows of youth are poignant and bitter. The daffodils which challenge so proudly and splendidly the boisterous March winds are soon shriveled and defeated, limply wrinkling to remind us of the inevitable ravages of time. The world is urgent with bursting life, with the wild exciting beauty of youth, but it is an impetuous beauty of scenes racing impatiently in to the florid and surfeited luxury of summer. Here is no comfort and fulfillment, only passionate creation of transitory delight. （Ona Low, My Favourite Season.）我也许是一个悲观主义者，因为使我伤感的季节，是春天而非秋天。人们总是把青春比作春天，这自然无可厚非，但青春逝去的哀伤却是苦不堪言的。那笑傲三月狂风的水仙花，很快枯萎一片，花残叶败，紧锁的愁眉向人们诉说着天道的无情。蓬勃的生命和狂热激奋的青春美丽催动着春天万物，良辰美景来去匆匆，转眼又是俗艳奢华的夏天了。春天没有安然自得， 没有任何结果，有的只是激情涌动和转瞬即逝的快乐。

1) 英汉篇章比较

2) 篇章翻译

A. 同一声音在英语和汉语中用不同的拟声词来表示：
cock-a-doodle-do──喔喔喔
clip-clop──（马蹄）得得声
tick-tack──（钟表）滴答声
hoot(toot)──嘟嘟
dub-a-dub──（鼓）咚咚声
jingle-jangle──玎玲当啷
A horse neighs/whinnies/nickers.马嘶/马鸣/马萧萧。
A dog barks/yaps/yelps/bays/snarls/growls/howls.狗汪汪叫/犬吠。
A fly hums/buzzes/drones.苍蝇嗡嗡/哼哼叫。
A mosquito hums /buzzes/drones.蚊子哼哼/嗡嗡叫。
A pig grunts/squeals. 猪咕噜咕噜/哼哼叫。
B. 同一声音在英语和汉语中用相同的拟声词来表达：
meow(或meou)──喵
hiss──嘶嘶（作声）
dingdong──丁冬（声），叮当（声）
ping──乒
giggle──咯咯（地笑）
pit-a-pat──劈劈啪啪（地）
cuckoo──咕咕
A cow moos.母牛哞哞叫。
A pigeon coos.鸽子咕咕叫。
C. 不同的声音用相同的拟声词：
babble──（婴儿）咿呀学语声；（流水）潺潺作声
smack──（拍击声、鞭打声、砸嘴声、掌掴声）

trees) rustle

A. 英语原文中有拟声词，汉译时也用拟声词

(1) A turkey gobbles.火鸡咯咯叫。
(2) A wolf howls/growls. 狼嚎。
(3) A bee hums.蜜蜂嗡嗡地叫。
(4) A bull bellows. 公牛哞哞地叫。

(1) The train clattered out of the station.

(2) The shutters clattered in the wind.

(3) The girls clattered away at their luncheon.

(4) The dishes and bowls slid together with a clatter.

(1) The thunder rolled in the distance. 远处雷声隆隆。
(2) There came the hum of machines. 传来了机器的隆隆声。
(3) The offices were quite. Far below I could hear the rumble of tube trains carrying commuters to the west end.各办公室都很静，我可以听到地底下的隆隆声，那是地铁在运送通勤人员去西区。

（1） Whee-ee-ee! Whee-ee-ee! The police whistles shrilled suddenly.
"的！的！"突然警笛响了。
（2） Those standing behind whispered and chattered all the time.

（3） They hissed him off the stage. 他们把他嘘下了台。
（4） The clock ticked, the fire cracked.钟声滴滴答答，火声劈劈啪啪。

（2） The ship hooted down the river.呜……那船沿江而下。（谓语动词──独立成分）
（3） The clock ticked away the minutes.钟声滴答滴答地把时间打发走了。（谓语动词──独立成分）
（4） A bitter storm of sleet, dense and ice-cold, swept the wet streets, and rattled on the trembling windows. 刺骨的暴风夹着密集而寒冷的雨雪，扫过湿漉漉的街道，打得颤抖的窗子格格作响。（谓语动词──副词）

（1） She slammed the box on the table.她把匣子砰的一下摔在桌子上。
（2） The man shut the door with a bang.那人砰的一声把门关上了。
（3） The wind whispered in the pines.风在松林中飒飒作响。
（4） The clang of the fire bell aroused the town.报火警钟的当当声惊醒了全镇。
B. 英语原文中用拟声词，汉语译文中不用

（1） Old beams began to crack mysteriously.

（2） There was a large , low-ceiling room, with clacking, rattling machines. 有一大间天花板很低的屋子，里面的机器响成一片。
（3） A profound silence prevailed over all and the only thing she could hear was the tap of ivy on the pane.万籁俱寂，她唯一听到的是长青藤轻扣玻璃声。
（4) On my way to school I can see the babbling water in the brook, hear the frogs creaking, cuckoos cuckooing, sparrows chirping in the woods.上学路上，我能看见溪中的潺潺流水，能听见青蛙鸣、杜鹃啼，麻雀叫。
C. 英语原文中没有拟声词，汉语译文中加用拟声词

（1） He crashed down on a protesting chair.

（2） The lad rushed in , gasping for breath.

（3） When he raised his hand, ten thousand eyes followed it.他把手儿一扬，千万人的眼睛跟着它滴溜溜地转。

A.基本颜色词

red──红，赤 yellow──黄 purple──紫 black──黑，青
blue──蓝 white──白 brown──棕，褐 green──绿，青

green hills青山 brown sugar红糖
black tea红茶 to be brown晒黑了
black in face脸色铁青 white coffee牛奶咖啡
to be looking green苍白，脸上有病色
to be blue in the face with cold冻得发紫
white meat色浅的嫩牛肉、猪肉或煮熟的鸡鸭肉
a white Christmas 大雪纷飞的圣诞节

to be in the blues 闷闷不乐（兰色在汉语中无此象征意义）
a very white man 非常忠实可靠的人（而中国京剧脸谱中"白脸"代表奸诈）
a black look 恶狠狠地瞪一眼（汉语中只说"白眼"）
green-eyed 忌妒的（汉语中只说"红眼病"）
to be in the red亏损；负债（汉语中有"赤字"之说）
a white lie无恶意的谎言（尤为礼貌起见所说的慌言，汉语中白色无此含义）

B.实物颜色词

grass（草）──草绿色 silver（银）──银白色
chestnut （栗 ）──褐色 rosy（玫瑰）──淡红色
flax（亚麻）──淡黄色 violet（紫罗兰）──紫色
canary （金丝雀）──鲜黄色 salmon （萨门鱼）──橙红色
coral （珊瑚）──红色 ivory（象牙）──淡黄色
ruby （红宝石）──鲜红色 brass（黄铜）──黄色
sand （沙）──土黄色 vermilion（ 朱砂）──朱红色
butter（黄油）──淡黄色 milk（牛奶）──乳白色
charcoal（炭 ）──黑色 fire（火）──鲜红色

A. 把英语颜色词译成与之相应的汉语颜色词。如果英语颜色词与汉语颜色词在词义上相同，就可采用这种直译的方法。例如：
（1） The sun was dropping behind the farthest mountain, and the valleys were purple with something deeper than aster. 夕阳已渐渐沉没在远山的背后，壑谷间一片紫蔼，颜色比紫菀还浓。
（2）His arms and legs were thickly smeared with calamine lotion dried to a chalky white. 他四肢上涂得厚厚的炉甘石液已干成粉白色。
（3）The very dust was scorched brown, and something quivered in the atmosphere as if the air itself was panting. 连那尘土都被炙烤成褐色；大气中似乎也有什么东西在颤抖，仿佛空气本身也在气喘吁吁。
（4）The clear, sharp cloven Carrara mountains sent up their steadfast flame of marble summit into amber sky. 轮廓分明的卡拉拉山把永恒不变的火焰似的大理石山顶插入琥珀色的天空。
（5）The leafless trees, that against the leaden sky now revealed more fully the wonderful beauty and intricacies of their branches. 那叶儿落尽的树木，映衬着铅灰色的天空，此刻显得更加枝丫交错，姿态万千。
B.改换英语颜色词。如一种颜色在两种语言中分别被不同的颜色词所指称，而直译会导致读者不正确的联想或是不为译入语的读者所接受，这时可改换颜色词，使之符合译入语的表达习惯。例如：
（1） The floor was covered with ochre-colored sawdust, trampled here and there into mud. 地上全是黄褐色的木屑，到处都给踩成泥糊糊的了。
（2） The sun shining on her glossy hair, gave it a metallic luster, and it was difficult to say what was the color , dark bronze or black. 阳光照在她光泽的头发上，给它涂上一层金属似的光彩。很难说出它究竟是什么颜色，是深褐色，还是黑色。
（3） Lightness, rapidity, nimbleness, grace and rich apparel all belong to the humming-bird. The emerald, the ruby, and the topaz gleam upon its dress.

（4）His face became blue with cold. 他的脸冻得发青。
（5）She dressed in a very short creamy skirt that day. 那天她穿着一条很短的米色裙子。
C.原文中无颜色词，译文中增加颜色词。有时译文可根据具体语境添增色彩词以突出色彩，加强译文的感染力。
（1）And over all these, set close against the golden hair and burning cheek of lady and knight is that untroubled and sacred sky_1 . 在这一切之上， 同贵夫人和骑士金色头发和红润面颊相映衬的是一片蔚蓝的天空。
（2）He didn't try in vain. 他没有白干。
（3）Her eyes became moist. 她眼圈红了。
（4）It is like a windfall, like a Godsend, like an unexpected piece of luck.

D.原文颜色词有象征意义或意义有所引申，一般采用意译灵活处理。例如：
(1) You look blue today. What's wrong with you?

(2) He is green with jealousy. 他醋意大发。
(3) He is a blue-blooded man . 他出生贵族。
（4）Her story immediately reminded me of a Chinese saying"The young beautiful lady will always be star-crossed."

A.英汉习语形义全同, 这类习语为数少，例如：
Barking dogs do not bite.

Who is contented, enjoys.

Misfortunes never come singly.

It is harder to change human nature than to change rivers and mountains.

Like father, like son. 有其父必有其子。
B. 习语形义基本相同, 这类习语比上面一类在数量上要多些，例如：
as light as a feather(or as thistle-down)

to take a load off one's mind

to run in the same groove; to cut from the same cloth.

to make a beast of oneself

He that hath been bitten by a serpent is afraid of a rope.

Shallow streams make most din.

Money makes the mare go.

Reckless youth makes rueful age.

C.英汉习语形似义异,这类习语相当多，例如：
When a dog is drowning every one offers him drink. (狗若落水人人救，强调人人伸出援

Ignorance of the law is no excuse of breaking it. (法盲犯法不可恕，强调严格执行法律。)

Strike while the iron is hot (强调"抓住时机")

Lock the stable-door after the horse is stolen.(强调为时已晚。)

D.英汉习语形异义似, 例如：
A word spoken is past recalling. 一言既出，驷马难追。
Great boast, small roast.干打雷， 不下雨。
Take not a musket to kill a butterfly. 杀鸡焉用宰牛刀。
as dumb as an oyster 守口如瓶
to hit someone below the belt/to stab someone in the back 暗箭伤人
as weak as water 弱不禁风
E.英汉习语形义完全不同，例如：
cast one's bread upon the waters不期望报答所作之事
keep the wolf from the door免于饥饿，勉强度日
make one's blood freeze令人恐惧
have bats in the belfry头脑有点古怪
see the sun活着

A. 直译

to be armed to the teeth 武装到牙齿（该典故出自从前南美的北海岸的海盗，他们除了两手都持武器外，在牙齿间还要咬一把刀。）
Time is money. 时间就是金钱（比"一寸光阴一寸金"流行）
to shed crocodile tears 掉鳄鱼眼泪 as cold as ice 冰冷
to trim the sail to the wind看风使帆
Too many cooks spoil the broth. 厨子多了煮坏汤。
Blood is thicker than water. 血浓于水。
B. 直译加注法

a bull in a china shop公牛闯进瓷器店──肆意捣乱
to shed crocodile tears流鳄鱼眼泪──假慈悲
People considered that what he had played on that occasion was no more than a Judas kiss.人们认为他在那种场合所表演的不过是犹大之吻──居心险恶。
The favors of Government are like the box of Pandora, with this important difference; that they rarely leave hope at bottom. 政府的恩惠如同潘多拉的盒子，后患无穷，主要不同之处是：盒底很少留有希望。
The best fish swim (are) near the bottom.

Fish begins to stink at the end.鱼要腐烂头先烂--上梁不正下梁歪。
If two ride on a horse, one must ride behind.

The apples on the other side of the wall are the sweetest.

Don't forget to cross your t's.

C.套译

Better be the head of a dog than the tail of a lion. 宁为鸡首，不为牛后。
Some prefer turnips and others pears.

as lean as a rail 骨瘦如柴 （如 直译为"瘦得像个横杆"，则不符合中国人习惯。）
clean hand 两袖清风
It was by no means a bed of rose. 这决不是安乐窝。
He cries wine and sells vinegar. 挂羊头，卖狗肉。
as pale (or white) as ashes( or sheet or death) 面如土色
as red as rose 艳如桃李
as clear as daylight 洞若观火
All shall be well, Jack shall have Jill. 有情人终成眷属。
He robs Peter to pay Paul. 拆东墙补西墙。
Diamonds cut Diamonds. 棋逢对手，将遇良才。
Pay on the spot and borrow a lot; pay slow and you'll get no dough.

D. 意译

Look at the chaps in politics and business, whose whole lives were passed in skating on thin ice, and getting knighted for it. 试看那些政治上和商业上的家伙们， 他们整个儿的生活都是在风险中度过的，可是都因此封了爵。（to skate on thin ice 若直译为"如履薄冰"，则会产生谨慎从事的联想， 有违原意。）
to come like a dog at a whistle 一呼即来
Hilter was once as proud as a peacock. 希特勒曾是一个不可一世的家伙。
Mary and her mother are as like as two peas.

She likes to rubber-neck. 她爱问长问短。
start a hare 话离本题
to bring down the house 全场喝彩
plain sailing 一帆风顺
to show one's clean heels 逃之夭夭
to go on a wild goose chase 枉费心机
as greedy as a wolf 贪得无厌
Every bean has its black. 人皆有短处。
E.直译加意译

break the earth破土动工
wash off one's hands洗手不干
There is no rose without a thorn.

Every flow has its ebb. 潮有涨落日， 人有盛衰时。
A rolling stone gathers no moss. 滚石不生苔, 转业不聚财。
I had won 0 at poker that ordinarily would have burned a hole in my pocket，but I couldn't shake an overwhelming sadness. 我玩扑克游戏赢了三百元。通常，钱烧口袋漏，一有就不留。可我当时极为忧愁烦闷怎么也无法摆脱那种恶劣的心境。
Every family is said to have at least one skeleton in the cupboard.

F. 意译加注

throw in the sponge 认输，投降 （注：若拳击运动员的副手把擦身用的海绵抛向空中，则表示这个运动员认输因而不进入下一轮比赛。）
pour oil on troubled waters 平息风波，息事宁人（注：传说航海遇到风浪时，若把油倒进海里，可起到使海浪平息的作用。）
open sesame 敲门砖， 过难关的秘诀（注：《天方夜谈》中的《阿里巴巴与四十大盗》故事说：一个山洞内藏有无数的金银财宝，但洞门紧闭，必须用咒语"开门芝麻"才能打开。）
Good wine needs no bush. 酒好客自来。（注：英国从前流行一种风俗， 人们常在商店的门口外挂某种东西作为该店经营某种商品的标志， 挂常春藤ivybush标志的常为酒店。）

A. 准确理解习语，切毋望文生义，弄出笑话来。例如下面几例就是因为理解错了，所以译文不对：
（1）John likes to pat himself on the back. 约翰喜欢捶自己的背。（正确译法：约翰喜欢自吹。）
（2）Then it happened that I had to answer the call of nature, and, passing, I saw the risen dough, which seemed to say to me, "Do it!" In brief, I let myself be persuaded. 碰巧我现在得对自然的召唤作出答复（正确译法：碰巧这时我想解手），走着，我看到了发起来的面团，它好象对我说，"撒吧！"简单地说，我真的这么做了。
（3）He kissed the hare's foot. 他吻了兔子的脚。（正确译法：他迟到了。）

（1） It is a good horse that never stumbles.

（2） It is a good man that never stumbles, and a good wife that never grumbles.

（3）It is an ill bird that fouls its own nest.

（4） Time and tide wait for no man. 时光如潮水， 不等任何人。（不宜译为"时光和潮水不等人"。）
（5） Of soup and love, the first is the best.

（6）In choosing a wife and buying a sword we ought not to trust another.

（7） There was never a night or a problem that could defeat sunrise or hope.

（8） People will be long forgetting her.

B. 采用套译法时，要特别注意避免使用民族特色太浓的汉语成语来套译英语习语，否则译文在上下文中就会显得不伦不类，损及原意。例如：
（1） Beauty lies in lover's eyes.

(2) Many heads are better than one. 一人不及众人计。（不宜译作"三个臭皮匠，顶个诸葛亮"。）
(3)Never offer to teach fish to swim.不要教鱼儿游泳。(不宜译作"不要班门弄斧"。）
(4) Even a worm will turn. 逼人入绝境，绵羊也反抗（不宜译作"狗急跳墙"。）
(5)Give a dog a bad (an ill) name and hang him. 谗言可畏（不宜译为"欲加之罪，何患无辞"，其本意是指"一旦给人加个坏名声，他就很难洗刷掉了"。）
(6) Lock the stable door when the horse has been stolen.贼去关门。 （不宜译作"亡羊补牢"，其原意是"马盗锁厩门，为时已太晚"。）
(7) A miss is as good as a mile. 错无大小， 其错一样。 （不宜译作"失之毫厘，谬以千里"。）
(8) have the face 恬不知耻，厚脸皮（不是有面子）
(9) to pull somebody's leg 开玩笑（不是拖后腿）
(10) a big fish in a small pond 山中无老虎，猴子也称王。（或： 林中无鸟雀称王。不是 "小塘容不下大鱼"。）
C.有些习语有多种译法，哪种译法恰当要视具体语境而定:
（1）Take care of the pence, and the pounds will take care of themselves.
（金钱）积少自然成多。/小事谨慎，大事自成。
（2）One swallow does not make a summer.

（3） Still water runs deep. 静水流深。/外表淡漠然而内心深情。/沉默者深谋。
（4）Don't cross the bridge till you get to it.

（5）He laughs best who laughs last.

（6）Don't cast out the foul water till you bring in the clean.

（一）名从主人原则

（二）约定俗成原则

（三）简略原则

（四）用字避免产生不好的联想意义原则

（一）直译
The Canterbury Tales 《坎特伯雷故事集》；The Prince and the Pauper 《王子和贫儿
The Adventures of Alice in Wonderland 《艾丽丝漫游记
The Great Expectation 《远大前程》；A Tale of Two Cities 《双城记
Aesop's Fables 《伊索寓言》；Sister Carrie 《嘉丽妹妹
Vanity Fair《名利场》；A Farewell to Arms《永别了，武器
The Merry Wives of Windsor《温莎的风流娘儿们
The Age of Innocence《纯真年代》；Dances with Wolves《与狼共舞
Jurassic Park《侏罗纪公园

（二）直译与意译
St. Mark《马克福音》；Robinson Crusoe 《鲁宾逊漂流记
The Mayor of Casterbridge《卡斯特桥市长》；Dombey and Son《董贝父子
A River Runs Through It《一条流过记忆的河》；Sleepless in Seattle《西雅图夜未眠》
Patton《巴顿将军》；The Net《网络情缘
Moonstruck《月色撩人》；Sand and Blood《碧血黄沙
（三）意译
Uncle Tom's Cabin《黑奴吁天录》（试比较：《汤姆叔的小屋》）
David Copperfield《块肉余生述
Silas Marner 《织工马南传》（试比较：《塞那斯·马南》）
First Knight《剑侠风流》；Sabrina《情归巴黎
Oliver Twist 《雾都孤儿》；Pygmalion 《皮格马利翁
Red Star Over China 《西行漫记》 ； Gone with the Wind 《乱世佳人
Pinocchio 《木偶奇遇记》；As You Like It《皆大欢喜
The Pilgrim's Progress《天路历程》；For Whom the Bell Tolls《战地钟声
（四）音译
Jane Eye 《简.爱》；Robin Hood 《罗宾汉
Martin Eden 《马丁·伊登

（一）美国报刊与杂志：
New York Times《纽约时报
Washington Post 《华盛顿邮报》（美国第2大报）
Los Angeles Times 《洛杉矶时报》 （美国第3大报）
Christian Science Monitor 《基督教科学箴言报
International Herald Tribune 《国际先驱论坛报》（国际性报纸，美国报界集团在巴黎发行）
Wall Street Journal 《华尔街日报》（专业性商业金融报）
The Baltimore Sun 《巴尔的摩太阳报》；Chicago Tribunes《芝加哥论坛报
The Boston Globe《波士顿环球报》；Time《时代周刊
Life 《生活》（画刊）；Playboy《花花公子
Fortune 《幸福》；G.E.O 《地理》；U.S.A. Today 《今日美国
National Geographic Magazine 《国家地理杂志》；People 《人物
（二）英国报刊杂志：
The Times 《泰晤士报》；Daily Telegraph 《每日电讯报
Guardian 《卫报》；Sunday Times 《星期日泰晤士报
Observer 《观察家报》；Daily Mail 《每日邮报》；The Guardian 《前卫》（杂志）
Daily Mirror 《每日镜报》；News of the World 《世界新闻报》；The Sun《太阳报

Ivory Coast象牙海岸；Mediterranean Sea地中海；Little Rock小石城（美国）
Midway Island 中途岛（美国）；Pearl Harbor 珍珠港（美国）Red Sea红海
Great Canyon大峡谷（美国）；Long Island长岛（美国）；West Point西点（美国）
Port-au-Prince太子港 （海地）；Big Rapids大瀑布城 （美国）；Golden Triangle 金三角

（一） 有些译名译自其他外国语，需遵循名从主人的原则， 即按原语言的发音来译，这就造成汉语译名与英语地名发音不一致的现象。例如Paris译为"巴黎"，而不是"巴黎斯"，因为法语读音是/＇pari/；Germany译为"德意志"，而不是"捷曼里"，因为德语中该词的发音是 /doit∫/；Rome 译为"罗马"，而非"罗姆"，因为意大利语的Roma 发音为/rouma/。
（二） 有些英语地名未按标准读音来译，但译文却因历史等原因而流传已久，为人所熟悉，故一般不重译，仍可继续使用。例如，美国的州名Illinois按标准读音应译为"伊利诺"，重音在词尾， s不发音， 但却译为"伊利诺斯"，Michigan 应为"密歇根"，却译为"密执安"，Iowa 应为"爱荷华"，但却译为"衣阿华"。英国的Greenwich在英文发音中w是不发音的，却被译为"格林威治"。
（三） 音译地名不易过长，遵循简略原则，不明显的音不必机械的逐个译出，如Brazil译为"巴西"，Scotland译为"苏格兰"。
（四） 有些英语地名的后缀部分比较有规律，选用汉字时应尽量一致，如少数欧洲地名以 -barrow, -borough , -burg 结尾的，现在一般都译为"堡"，但象-ford这个词尾除了在Oxford中译为"津"以外，其他仍以译音为主，如Hartford（哈特福德）。
（五） 有些英语地名读音不规则，翻译时要注意。如Worcester, Leicester, Cloucester中的 ce不发音，应分别译为"伍斯特"，"累斯特"，"格洛斯特"。
（六） 英语中有不少人地同名。有些地方为纪念某一人物或事件都用同一名字作为地名，有些是移居殖民地的人用老家的地名来命名新居。于是，相同的地名因其归属的国家不同，翻译时往往有必要用不同的译法以示区别。如英国的Cambridge译为"剑桥", 但哈佛大学所在地Cambridge应译成"坎布里奇"；美国的 San Francisco 译为"旧金山"，但阿根廷的San Francisco只译为"圣弗朗西斯科"；意大利的 Florence 译为"佛罗伦萨"，美国的Florence却译为"弗洛伦斯"。这种情况也可以采用加注的办法以示区别。譬如莎士比亚的故乡Stratford （斯特拉特福），以其为名的地方在英国有2处，美国有3处，加拿大和新西兰各有1处，因此莎翁故乡名译为"艾冯河畔斯特拉特福"（Stratfort on Avon）才为妥当。
（七） 地名翻译还要注意英语中的日语地名的转译。日语地名译成英语时，英语译音，而再从英文译成汉语， 则须用日语中原有的汉字。如Tokyo译为"东京"，Okinawa译为"冲绳"，Hiroshima译为"广岛"，都是采用这种转译法。
（八） 英语的地名虽然以译音为主，但有其固定的译法，不能按发音随意取字译名。遇到具体地名须查阅辛华编撰的《世界地名译名手册》（商务印书馆出版）。

(Reuters) Reuters News Agency 路透社；(AP) Associated Press美联社
(NHK）Nippon Hoso Kyokai 日本放送协会；(VOA） Voice of America 美国之音
(UPI) United Press International合众国际社；(Kyodo) Kyodo News Service 共同社
(TASS)Telegraphic Agency of the Soviet Union 塔斯社；(JiJi) JIJI News Agency 时事社
(TBS）Tokyo Broadcasting System 东京广播公司；(SC)Security Council 安全理事会
(NATO) North Atlantic Treaty Organization北大西洋公约组织
(OPEC)Organization for Petroleum Exporting Countries 石油输出国组织
(ASEAN)Association of South East Asian Nations 东盟（东南亚国家联盟）
(EC)European Economic Community 欧洲经济共同体
(EFTA) European Free Trade Association 欧洲自由贸易联盟

（一） 音译

Simens 西门子；Hilton希尔顿；Citizen 西铁城 ； Intel 英特尔； Haier 海尔（电器）

（二） 谐音取意法

Budweiser 百威（啤酒）；McDonald 麦当劳（食品）；Coca Cola可口可乐（饮料）
Pepsi 百事可乐（饮料）； Mazda 马自达(汽车)； Benz 奔驰（汽车）
Kirin 麒麟（啤酒）；Sprite 雪碧（饮料）；Fanta芬达（饮料）
Fun 奋牌（服装）；Pentium 奔腾（计算机处理器）；Arrow雅乐（衬衣）
Avon 雅芳 ； Mobile 美孚；Kent 健牌(香烟) ； Marlboro 万宝路（香烟）

（三） 意译

Camel 骆驼（香烟） ；Lark 云雀（香烟）；Crown皇冠 （汽车）；Jaguar美洲虎
Microsoft 微软；Playboy 花花公子；Crocodile 鳄鱼牌（皮具）；Shell壳牌
（四） 转译 、改译和音意结合法

Toshiba东芝 ；Hitachi日立；Isuzu五十铃； Mitsubishi三菱；Honda本田Toyota丰田；

（一）音韵修辞格(phonological rhetorical devices)

Presently there came the click of high-heeled shoes.

Alliteration就是在一个词组或一个诗行中，有两个以上彼此靠近的词，其开头的音节（或其他重读音节）具有同样的字母或声音；assonance是在一句话或在一个诗行中间，有两个或更多的词具有相同的元音。前者与汉语的双声(汉语中两个或多个音节，声母相同，叫做双声，它不是辞格)相似，后者与汉语的叠韵（两个或多个音节彼此韵母相同）非常相似。例如：
（1）Peter Piper picked a peck of picking pepper.（alliteration）

（2）With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. (assonance) 怀着这个信念，我们能把绝望的大山凿成希望的磐石。
（二）词义修辞格(semantic rhetorical devices)

A. simile，metaphor；allusion
Simile与汉语的明喻基本相同，用某一事物或情境来比拟另一个事物或情境。其本体和喻体均同时出现在句中，在形式上是相对应的。英语 simile 的比喻词一般是 like, as（……as）等, 汉语明喻的比喻词通常是"好象"、"仿佛"等。例如：
They are like streetcars running contentedly on their rails.

Metaphor兼有汉语隐喻、借喻及拟物的特点，即把甲事物当作乙事物来描写。如：
（1）Experience is the mother of wisdom. 经验为智慧之母。（隐喻）
（2）She is shedding crocodile tears. 她在掉鳄鱼眼泪。（借喻）
（3） Mark my words, the first woman who fishes for him, hooks him.

as thick as thieves亲密无间 （不是"像贼一样厚"）
as old as the hills古老 （不是"像山一样老"）
The ship plows the sea. 船在乘风破浪地前进。（不是"船在犁海"）
Allusion与汉语的暗引相近似。其特点是不注明来源和出处，一般多引用人们熟知的关键词或词组，将其融合编织在作者的话语中。引用的东西包括典故、谚语、成语、格言和俗语等。英语引用最多的是源出《圣经》故事以及希腊、罗马神话、《伊索寓言》和那些渊源流长的谚语、格言等。例如：
（1）Grammar may be his heel of Achilles.语法是他的大弱点。（Achilles是希腊神话中的一位勇士。除了脚踵处，他身上其他地方刀枪不入。）
（2）The project is an economic albatross from the start.

B. metonymy; transferred epithet
Metonymy、synecdoche和_1antonomasia都是不直接说出事物的本来名称，而换用另一个名称或另一个说法。它们大体上相当于汉语的借代（分为旁借和对代两类）。如Crown（王冠）可喻指君主、王权、王国政府等；doll（玩具）可喻指姑娘、宝贝等。再如：
（1）The baby was brought up on the bottle.

（2）Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest.某个沉默的、无名诗人也许在此长眠。（antonomasia──用米尔顿代诗人）
Transferred epithet是采用表示性质和特征的形容词或相当于形容词的词来修饰、限定与它根本不同属性的名词。这种修辞手法能与汉语中的移就基本相似。例如：
The doctor's face expressed a kind of doubting admiration. （用"疑惑"修饰限定"钦佩"）医生的脸上流露出钦佩而又带有疑惑的神情。
C. personification; hyperbole
personification与汉语拟人完全相同，就是赋予物以人的言语属性。这种拟人化的修辞手法读起来使人感到特别形象生动、富有情趣。例如：
Words pay no debts. 空话还不了债。
Hyperbole与汉语的夸张完全相同，都是为了表达深刻的感受,抒发强烈的感情，通过故意夸大事实来给人留下深刻的印象。例如：
His words made my blood freeze. 听了他的话， 我的血都快凝固了。
D. irony; euphemism；pun
Irony的含义比汉语的反语广泛。它包括verbal irony, dramatic irony, situational irony。后两种已超出一般修辞格的范畴，这里不作详细介绍。Verbal irony与汉语反语的特点完全相同，也是正话反说，反话正说，一般需借助于特定的上下文和语境才能被正确理解。在多数情况下，irony可以译成汉语的反语。例如：
She talked about great people as if she had the fee-simple of May Fair, and when the court went into mourning, she always wore black. 她一开口就是某某勋爵某某大人，那口气竟好象她生来就是贵族。宫里有了丧事， 她没有一回不穿孝。
Euphemism就是用转弯抹角的说法来代替直截了当的话，把原来显得粗鲁或令人尴尬的语言温和、含蓄地表达出来。这在汉语中叫委婉语。例如：

Pun与汉语双关一样，就是用一个词，一句话，或一个语言片段同时表达双重意思：一个是表面的，一是隐含的，并且以隐含的意思为主。恰当的运用这种手法会使语言生动有趣，达到由此及彼的效果。英语pun 和汉语的双关语都可以分为两类：谐音双关（homophonic puns）和语义双关（homographic puns）。前者是利用词意根本不同的谐音词构成。后者是利用一词多义的特点来构成。虽然pun和汉语双关在格式和修辞作用上基本相同，但是由于两种语言的语音不同，多义词也很难找到完全对应的词语。例如：
What does that lawyer do after he dies?--Lie still. 那个律师死后干什么？──躺着仍说鬼话。(注：lie躺， 撒谎；still安静地， 仍然)
E. oxymoron; zeugma ; contrast
Oxymoron(矛盾修辞法）与汉语中的反映辞格类似，都是将相互矛盾的概念和判断巧妙地联系在一起，以便相互映衬，突出事物的特点，表达复杂的思想感情和意味深长的哲理。矛盾修辞手法在英语中常见，但在汉语中很少见。如：sweet sorrow 忧喜参半 (不是甜蜜的悲伤)； proud humility 不卑不亢 (不是骄傲的谦卑)
Zeugma（轭式搭配法）是用一个词（动词、形容词或介词）与两个以上的在意义上不相干的名词搭配。它用词简练， 饶有风趣，与汉语的拈连在性质上完全一致。例如：
She opened the door and her heart to the homeless boy.

Contrast和汉语的对照在修辞格上是完全相同的，就是把两个相反的事物或一件事物的正反两方面放在一起，在比较和衬托之中突出不同事物的矛盾性，例如：
United we stand, divided we fall. 合则存，分则亡。
（三）句法修辞格(syntactical rhetorical devices)

(1)I have written in bed and written out of it, written day and night.

(2)The gods, they say, give breath , and they take it away. But the same could be said-could it not? 人都说老天爷把气赐予生灵，又把气夺走。不过这话用在小小的逗号上， 何尝不是如此？(rhetorical question)
(3)Man proposes, God disposes. 谋事在人， 成事在天。(antithesis)
(4)Up went the balloon into the cloudless sky.

A. 直译

(1)They were only crying crocodile tears at the old man's funeral because nobody had really liked him.在老头子的葬礼上，他们只不过挤了几滴鳄鱼的眼泪， 因为老头子在世时他们都不喜欢他。
(2) The book set off a firestorm of reaction.

(3) Among so many well-dressed and cultured people, the country girl felt like a fish out of water. 同这么多穿着体面而又有教养的人在一起， 这位乡下姑娘颇有如鱼离水之感。
(5)I deserve neither such praise nor such censure.这样的夸奖我担当不起，这样的责备我也担待不起。
(6)On the 14th of March, at a quarter to three in the afternoon, the greatest living thinker ceased to think.3月14日下午两点三刻，当代最伟大的思想家停止思想了。
B. 加注

(1) Christ, to hear some of those sailors' myths, you'd think bloody Fort Knox was on every ship that sailed. 天哪，要是听信有些水手的胡说八道，你会以为每条出海的船上都有该死的诺克斯堡哩。
（注:诺克斯堡是美国的一个军事保留地，是美国黄金仓库的所在地。）
(2) They did not reopen the Pandora's Box they had peeked into in 1972.

（注：潘朵拉的盒子原自希腊神话故事，里面藏有许多能给人们带来不幸的事物。）
(3)-Why are parliamentary reports called "Blue Books"?
--Because they are never red.
──为什么议会报告称为"蓝皮书"？
C. 释义

as drunk as a fiddler酩町大醉 (在英格兰早期文化生活中， 民间小提琴手在公共场合为舞蹈伴奏， 人们往往以酒酬谢，小提琴手因此每每喝得大醉。这种奇特的比喻只好意译。)
(1)They prolonged the clasp for the photographers, exchanging smiling words.他们延长握手的时间，让摄影师照相，同时微笑着交谈。(英语transferred epithet--汉语无修辞格)
(3)You want your pound of flesh, don't you?你要逼债，是吗？（英语allusion --汉语无修辞格）
(4)I spoke to them in hesitant English.我结结巴巴用英语对他们说。（英语transferred epithet--汉语无修辞格）
(5)He is the mouth of the House in its relations with the Crown.他是议会对王室的发言人。（英语metonymy--汉语无修辞格）
(6) Clearly a tug of war over key policies continues between the pragmatic and ideological camps.不言而喻， 注重务实的和强调意识形态的两大营垒还会在重大政策上争吵不休。(英语metaphor--汉语无修辞格)
D. 归化

(1) He was so fond of talking that his comrades nicknamed him "magpie".

(2) "Don't be scared, chickens!" came her voice with teasing gaiety.
"别害怕， 你们这些胆小如鼠的东西！"只听得她用戏谑的口气说道。（英语中鸡是懦弱、胆怯的代名词， 汉语中的鸡却无法引起人们这种联想，于是换成老鼠形象。）
(3)It is regrettable that our appeal remained a dead letter.遗憾的是，我们当时的呼吁石沉大海。
(4) And I suppose she'll tell all the boys, the old cat. 我猜想她会告诉所有的男人，这个长舌的老太婆！（英语中猫常用来比喻恶毒的女人）
(5) Up and down he walked, up and down across the library floor.他在书房里走过来又走过去，走过来又走过去。（英语anastrophe--汉语顺成结构）
(6)In the past 12 months the word has watched with disbelief and dismay the acceleration of force and violence in the region.过去的十二个月里，全世界惊愕莫名地和难以置信地看到了这个地区正在加速使用武力和暴力。（英语alliter-ation--汉语对偶法）
（7）Mrs. Macbeth has a heart as hard as flint.麦克白夫人生来一副铁石心肠。（英语simile--汉语隐语）
E. 切分

(1)She lost her heart and necklace at a ball.

(2) He was restlessly tired, even as he lay in bed.他累了，然而一点也不安宁，即使躺在床上也还是这样。
(3)Franklin Roosevelt listened with bright-eyed smiling attention.罗斯福目光炯炯，面带微笑，聚精会神地听着。
F.数种译法并用

(1)…when I and my sorrows are dust.当我的尸骨化为尘土，我的哀愁化作清风时…… (英语zeugma--汉译采用分译和归化)
(2)Civilization is syphilization!世界愈文明，梅毒愈蔓延。（英语pun--汉语采用分译和释义）
(3)From their slopes flow streams feeding the oases strung along the rim of inland deserts. 条条溪水，潺潺而下，滋润着镶嵌于内陆沙漠边缘的片片绿洲。（英语alliteration和assonance--汉语使用叠词、象声词、分译）
G.英语原文无修辞格，翻译成汉语时用修辞格

(1)He determined to satisfy himself of the real state of the case.

(2)I judge that there was going to be a crash by and by, but I was in now and must swim across or drown.我猜想迟早会有一天西洋镜有被拆穿，可是我既已下水，就不得不泅过水去，否则就会淹死。
(3)Flowers bloom all over the yard.

（1） Now for the discussion. 现在进行讨论
（3） So far so good. 到目前为止进展不错。
"be+动词的同源名词"句式:
（1） She is a good teacher.

（2） He is a lover of pop music.

（3） He is the murderer of his boss.

（4） He has been the ruler of the region for as long as twenty years.

（5） Mary is a good learner .

（6） He was a good listener and they would like to talk with him.

（7） Peter is a bad sailor. 彼得晕船。
（8） Cardiovascular disease is American number one killer.

（9） I used to be a bit of a fancier myself. 过去我也常常有点胡思乱想。
"be+非动词同源名词"句式：
（1） My party was a quite affair.

（2） There was no loud sound. Nothing asserted its size in a brutal tumult of wind and thunder. 四周听不见什么闹声。没有任何东西以风啸雷鸣般的喧嚣显示其威力。
（3） Excessive headline phrase condemnation is, of course, a possibility.当然，指责过分使用标题式短语是可能的。
（4） It was only my capacity for hard work that saved me from early dismissal.要不是我能干重活，早就给辞退了。
（5） They were all eyes as the presents were opened.礼品打开时，他们全神贯注地看着。
"be+动词的同源形容词"句式:
(1) This program was not popular with all of the troops.

(2) He is content with such kind of life.他满足于这样的生活。
(3) John is quite familiar with the machine.

(4) An acquaintance with the modern Chinese history is helpful to the study of Chinese revolution. 了解一下中国近代史，对研究中国革命是有帮助的。
"be+非动词同源形容词"句式：
（1） He was an able and a successful one.

（2） His ill health has been a very anxious business.

（3） I am quite ignorant of what they intend to do.

（4） You shouldn't be sensitive about one's clothing.

"be+副词"句式:
（1） We must be off now. 我们得走了。
（2） The performance is on. 演出已经开始了。
（3） Their experiment has been over. 他们的实验已经结束了。
（4） I saw you out with a boy yesterday.

"be+介词短语"句式：
（1） Because of bad government, the company was in the red.

（2） The factory is under construction.

（二）化动为静

（1） To the south of the city lies a river. 城南有一条河。
（2） In front of me stood the essential tools of the intelligence officer's trade-a desk, two telephones, one scrambled for outside calls, and to one side a large green metal safe with an oversized combination lock on the front. 眼前是干情报官这一行的基本用具──张写字台， 两部电话， 一部装有外线保密器， 一侧立着一个大型的绿色金属保险柜， 柜正面装有特大号的号码锁。
（3） Here, in the endless paper chase which began so clearly but ended in my mystery, lay the threads of my career. 这种无休无止的文档追索游戏， 始而目标明确， 终于迷雾一团，贯穿其中的便是我的职业生涯。
（4） High in the Carolina mountains sits a orphanage.

（1） Silence followed this remark.

（2） Our age is witnessing a profound political change.

（3） Its gleaming sands and backdrop of pine woods and distant hills give it a pleasant and restful atmosphere. 这儿沙滩闪烁，松林掩映，远山连绵，自有一种心旷神怡的气氛。
（4） She knows what's what. 她很有鉴别力。
（5） They thought differently.他们想法不同。
（6） It is chiefly characterized by its simplicity of structure.

（7） The room is well furnished.房间的陈设颇佳。

A. 具体词义概略化。原文中某些字面意义明确具体的词语，采用汉语中含义抽象、概括的词语来表达。例如：
(1) The United States is often depicted as a nation that has been devouring the world's mineral resources.人们常把美国说成是一个挥霍世界矿物资源的国家。（devour原义为"吞食"）
(2) A single thermonuclear bomb today has the destructive force of all the bombs and other explosives of World War II.今天，一枚热核弹头的杀伤力就相当于二次大战中全部炮火的总和。（bomb和explosive的原义分别为"炸弹"和"炸药"）
(3) Monday-morning quarterbacking about Israel's lack of preparedness for the October war plunged the country into a new political crisis last week.人们在事后指责以色列在十月战争中缺乏准备。上周，这种指责将以色列推入了一场新的政治危机。（Monday-morning quarterbacking如用具体化处理就是"星期一上午的四分后卫"）
(4) For generations coal and oil have been regarded as the chief energy sources used to transport men form place to place.几十年来，煤和石油一直被认为是交通运输的重要能源。（transport…place概略化译出）
B. 具体概念概略化。原文中某些字面意义比较实在或形象的词组或短语等改译成汉语中比较概括或笼统的说法。例如：
(1)In the modern world salt has many uses beyond the dining table. 在现代世界上，盐除了供食用外，还有许多其他用途。（dining table原文为"饭桌"）
(2) Pregnant women and women breast-feeding their children may need vitamins.孕妇和哺乳期的妇女可能需要维生素。（breast…children原义为"给自己的孩子喂奶"）
(3) ATGMs alone cannot be expected to bear the burden of the MBT threat. 不能单单指望反坦克导弹来对付主战坦克的威胁。（bear……of原义为"承受……的重担"）
(4) The scene is a dramatic reenactment of one among thousands of spontaneous that led up to the revolution. 这个非同寻常的事件，只不过是最终导致革命的千万个自发行动之一。（dramatic reenactment如具体化翻译就是"戏剧的再现"）
(5) Cyrus Vance has always been a clean-desk man, so it did not take him long to prepare to leave Washington. 万斯办事向来有条不紊， 因此， 他并没花大量的时间就作好了离开华盛顿的准备。
(6)Don't worry about it, for the project is on the fire.

A. 抽象概念具体化。英语中经常使用一些含义抽象的词句，但从上下文的逻辑来看，作者的本意是在表达具体概念，因此翻译时应选用含义明确的汉语，还其本来的面目。例如：
(1)For anti-aircraft and anti-missile applications considerable importance must attributed to an unmanned fully automatic gun and to a substantial reserve of ready use ammunition which can be fired without human intervention.在防空和反导弹战斗中，必须强调以下两个因素的重大作用：一是无人操作的全自动火炮；二是勿需人工装填、随时可以发射的大量备用弹药。
（2） You may have read stories in which the hero gets into his spaceship and"blasts off"into the outer reaches of space without a worry about fuel.你大概读过这样一些故事吧。它们描写一个英雄坐上飞船，"风驰电掣"，直冲九宵云外，毋须为燃料担心发愁。
(3) Vietnam was his entree to the new administration, his third incarna-tion as a foreign policy consultant.越南战争成了他进入新政府的敲门砖。他担任政府的对外政策顾问，那是第三次了。
(4) Where a railway crosses a navigable water way, and it is impossible to lift the line high enough for vessels to pass underneath without interception, a bridge must be built which is capable of being opened in order to allow the river or canal traffic to pass.在铁路经过通航河道的地方，如果那时不可能做到把线路升高到使船只在下面不受阻碍地通过的话，就必须把桥梁修成开启式的，以便江河或运河里的船只通过。
B. 概括或笼统概念具体化。有时原文作者用一些含义概括或笼统的词句来表达某一具体的事物、行为或情况，如按字面直译会使译者有隔雾观花之感。而且也不可能尽如作者愿意。这时就有必要用明确具体的词句把原文的具体含义表达出来。例如：
(1) A modern frigate or destroyer could well use up all her surface-to-air missiles in the first hours of a serious large-scale encounter.在一场大规模的海空战斗的最初几个小时内，现代护卫舰或驱逐舰就可能将舰载的全部舰对空导弹消耗殆尽。（字面意义为"冲突"）
(2) Many men have recognized the similarity of plants to the behavior of animals, and have dreamed wistfully, but forlornly, upon some method or source of rejuvenation such as Ponce de Leon sought in the Fountain of Youth several centuries ago.许多人认为，植物的习性与动物相似，于是梦寐以求地去探索什?quot;返老还童"的"灵丹妙药"，就象数百年前彭斯德·利昂在青春泉祈求仙水一样，结果只能是竹篮打水一场空。
(3) What is known is that weight extremes in either direction are definitely unhealthy.众所周知，过度肥胖或消瘦肯定是不健康的。（字面意义为"体重的两个极端"）
(4) Administrating this fluid intravenously will fill up the deficiency in potassium.静脉滴注这种液体可以补充体内钾的不足。（administrating字面意义为"给予"）
C. 广义词词义具体化。英语中有少数词使用广泛、搭配灵活，但其字面意义却颇为笼统和广泛。翻译时，必须根据其特定的上下文来确定其意义，然后选择具体的方式予以表达出来。例如：
(1) Plants cannot grow well in the absence of water.没有水，植物就不能茁壮地生长。
(2) Shock the bottle well before the experiment.实验前应反复摇动瓶子。
(3 )Radar waves go through clouds or fog quite well, whereas light waves no not.雷达波能很容易地穿云破雾，而光波则不能。
(4) Examine the account well before you pay it.付款之前请仔细核对帐目。
D. 其他情况具体化。在实际翻译过程中，还会碰到其他一些字面意义比较空泛或模糊的词句，如果直译就不能把原文本意交代清楚，有时还会造成歧义。这时就必须采用具体化的办法进行翻译。例如：
(1) No reproduction is granted by implication or otherwise of this information. 本资料不得私下或公开翻印。（or otherwise具体译为"公开"，以与by implication相对应）
(2) The planes may be in commercial use as early as the end of this decade or the beginning of the next.这类飞机最早可在八十年代末或九十年代初投入商业飞行。（this decade和the next分别具体译为"八十年代"和"九十年代"）
(3) Empties are not taken back. 空瓶不退钱。
(4) The stars twinkled in transparent clarity.星星在清澈的晴空中闪烁。

（1） One reliable source said that major tax changes were being considered by the Treasury. 据可靠消息，财政部正在考虑对税收办法作重大改革。
（2） John said that he would come this evening.约翰说他今晚来。

A. 以时间、地点等名词做主语的句子：
（1_） 1949 saw the founding of the People's Republic of China.
1949年中华人民共和国成立了。
（2） The minutes slipped by quickly.时间一分钟一分钟地溜过去了。
（3） Rome witnessed many great historic events.

B. 表示生理、心理状态的名词和表示某种遭遇的名词做主语：
（1）His illness prevented him from attending the conference.

（3）Astonishment, apprehension, and even horror oppressed her.

C. 具有行为和动作意义的名词作主语：
（1）The very sight of it makes me feel nervous.

（2）The shortest cut would take us five hours to get there.

（3）That night sleep eluded him.那天夜里他没睡好。
（4）The fresh sunlit January morning filled the young teacher with happy thought. 一月的早晨清新晴朗，令年轻教师心中充满了愉快的感想。
D. 其他类型：
（2）Well, Colonel Fitzwilliam, what do I play next? My fingers wait your orders.噢，菲兹威廉上校，接着弹个什么曲子？我在听您吩咐呢。
（3）Her heart did whisper that he had done it for her.她的心里的确嘀咕：为了我，他才这么做的。

A. 改变原句中的主语，即找出合适的动作执行者作为汉语句子的主语，把无生命主语转换为有生命主语，重组句子。例如：
(1) The sight of a tailor-shop gave me a sharp longing to shed my rags, and to clothe myself decently once more.我一看到一家服装店， 心里就起了一阵强烈的愿望， 很想扔掉这身褴褛的衣服，重新穿得象个样子。
(2) Anger choked his words. 他气得话也说不出来。
(3) His weariness and the increasing heat determined him to sit down in the first convenient shade. 他疲惫不堪，天气也越来越热。 他于是下了决心， 一碰到舒适的阴凉处，就坐下休息。
(4) Her eyes tell me that something must have happened.

B. 把无生命主语转化成汉语复句

（1） The bitter weather had driven everyone indoors.

（2） The sight of the girl always reminds me of her parents.

（3） A second term would give the President more power than was safe for republican institution. 如果总统竟然连任， 就会使总统权利太大而足以威胁共和制度的安全。
（4） This medicine will make you feel better. 吃了药你会舒服些。
C. 把无生命主语转化成汉语的状语

（1） As he puffed, an abrupt sound startled him.

（2） Investigation led us to the foregoing conclusion.

（3） The forty years, 1840-80, brought almost ten million migrants to America. 从1840至1880年这四十年中， 近一千万移民移居美国。
（4） Down met him well along the way. It was a pleasant uneventful ride.东方欲晓的时候， 他已走了一大段路了，这次骑马旅行是很愉快的，没有碰到意外事件。
（5） Four days passed, and the fifth day found the King of the Blind still incognito as a clumsy and useless stranger among his subjects. 四天过去了。 到了第五天，这位"盲人之王"仍被他的子民认为是个笨拙无用的外人。
D. 把无生命主语转化成汉语的外位成分

（1） Zaire defies easy classification.

（2） The heat makes me sweat like a pig. 热得我满头大汗。
（3） The noise made everybody upset. 闹得大家不得安宁。
（4） The small table overturning as he fell to the carpet helped bring her out of the shock. 他倒在地毯上，把小桌子撞翻，这才令她惊醒过来。
E. 引申英语谓语动词的词义，加以适当变通。例如：
（1） The courage escaped from me at the moment.

（2） From his windows which overlooked the Bay of Naples, he saw a hundred places that recalled the Romans and the Greeks. The past began to haunt him. 他站在窗前就能俯视那不勒斯湾。此时，他凭窗远望，看到上百处残踪遗迹，因而联想到罗马和希腊的胜衰。他开始不停地思考起古代社会来。
（3） Her name escaped me. 我记不起她的名字了。
（4） Words failed him. 他说不出话来。
（5） A smile warmed her face. 她的脸上洋溢着微笑。
（6） Warning plates with a red skull and crossbones said in three languages: Danger! 画着红色骷髅和交叉股骨的警告牌上用三种文字标出"危险"的字样。
A lot of troubles visited the poor family.

F. 运用使役句式。例如：
（1） His illness left him weak. 疾病使他虚弱。
（2） Continuous rain prevented us from taking any outdoor exercise.

（3）The noise frightened me. 那个声音把我吓坏了。
G. 采用拟人化的句式，但不能滥用。例如：
（1） Illness deprives him of life. 疾病夺走了他的生命。
（2） Good manners will open doors that the best education cannot.

（3） Words pay no debts. 空话还不了债。

（1） He spoke so well that everybody was convinced of his innocence.
a. 他说得那么好听，以至于每一个人都相信他是无辜的。
b. 他说的那样好听，谁都相信他是无辜的。
（2） If you turn to the left, you will find our institute at a distance.
a. 如果你向左转弯， 你就可以远远看到我们学校。
b. 向左转弯就可以远远看到我们学校。
（3） I can't trust him, because he is not honest.
a. 因为他不老实，所以我不相信他。
b. 他不老实， 我不相信他。
（4） We took off and flew over the city and slowly gained height.
a. 我们起飞了并且飞过城市并且慢慢飞高。
b. 我们起飞了，飞过城市，慢慢飞高。
（5） The cat ate the mouse that ate the malt that lay in the corner of the house.
a. 猫吃了那只吃了放在房子角落里的麦芽糖的耗子。
b. 猫吃了耗子，耗子吃了放在房子角落里的麦芽糖。

A. 简单句
(1) I was too tired to talk with you. 我很累，不能同你说话。
(2) We never meet without a parting. 有聚就有散。
(3) He lived neither for fame nor for personal gains. 他活着不为名不为利。
B. 并列句
(1) We have studied English for a year and we can act English. 我们学了一年英文， 已经能够演英文剧了。
(3) The door was opened, and the audience came crowding in. 门开了，观众一拥而入。
(4) And with this, and a proud bow to his patrons, the Manager retires, and the curtain rises.领班的说到这里，向观众深深的鞠了一躬，退到后台，幕起。
C. 复合句
(1) When I was reading a book, she came in. 我正在看书，她进来了。
(2) I'll let you know as soon as it is arranged. 一安排好就通知你。
(3) It has been a long time since I saw you. 好久不见了。
(4) As she talked on she got more and more excited. 她越讲越兴奋。
(5) I knew nothing about it until he told me. 他告诉我了我才知道。
(6) Come when you are free. 有空就来。
(7) If winter comes, can spring be far behind? 冬天来了， 春天还会远吗？
(8) He was a free-will agent and he chose to do careful work, and if he failed, he took the responsibility without subterfuge.他是个自有主意的人,干活就要认真干好， 没干好， 他就承担责任， 决不借故推委。
(9) There was something remarkable in his manner of doing so, though I could not have said for my life what.他这一举一动我总觉得有点奇特，奇特在哪里我又说不上。
(10) Whatever you like to eat, just tell me.想吃什么， 只管告诉我。
(11) A wind blows so bitterly that the orphanage boys reach the door with fingers stiff in an agony of numbness. 在呼啸的寒风中， 孤儿院的男孩将一份份牛奶端到育婴房去， 一天得跑两趟呢。 他们走到门口时， 手指冻得僵硬， 一点儿都不听使唤。
(12)) At daylight I was half wakened by the sound of chopping. Again it was so even in texture that I went back to sleep. 第2天黎明时分， 一阵劈柴声搅得我似醒非醒。 那拍子依然不紧不慢， 又把我带回梦乡。
(13) The cook turned pale, and asked the housemaid to shut the door, who asked Brittle, who asked the tinker, who pretended not to hear.厨子的脸发起白来， 要使唤丫头把门关上， 丫头叫布利特尔去，布利特尔叫补锅匠去，补锅匠却装着没听见。

（1） I can't tell you anything when you won't listen. 既然你不听， 我就什么也不对你说。
（2） She has her weakness, but that doesn't mean she is not qualified for the job. 她有缺点但这并不是说她不能胜任这项工作。
（3） You don't have to worry as long as we are here. 只要我们在你就别担心。
（4） Since I shall be here again tomorrow, I won't wait any longer. 反正我明天还来， 现在就不等了。
（5） Hardly had we started off when it began to rain. 我们刚要出发就下雨了。
（6） Elsie, flushed with pride, happiness, and the sweet champagne and already looking more of a Dulver, was compelled to respond. 埃尔西由于骄傲、喜悦， 又喝了几杯甜香槟酒而脸色通红， 更象达尔佛家的人了。现在她只好站起来致答词。
（7） In the 1950s most Americans believed parents should stay in an unhappy marriage to avoid damaging the children.在50年代， 多数美国人认为， 做父母的即使婚姻不美满， 也要维持下去， 以免伤害孩子。

（1） A clear conscience laughs at false accusations. 只要问心无愧，别人的指责可以一笑置之。
（2） Winter finds out what summer lays by. 到了冬天才知道夏天储存东西的重要。
（3） His youth got him off. 由于他年轻， 他得到了宽恕。
（4） With all his shortcomings, he was a conscientious worker.尽管他有缺点， 但工作却是勤勤恳恳的。
（5） The book sells well. 书卖得好。
（6） The cloth needs cleaning. 衣服要洗了。

（一） 公文的文体特点

1） 措词准确。发布公文的目的一般在于解释或阐明公文发布者的立场、观点或政策、措施，因此公文在措词上必须准确明晰，切忌模棱两可或含糊晦涩。
2） 用词正式，且多古体词。公文作为政府或职能部门所发布的文章，需具有其权威性、规范性。因此在用词上一般较为正式，并且不排除使用一些较为古雅的词（如hereinafter, hereof, herewith等等）。
3） 普通词多有特定意义。许多普通的词在公文体中常常具有其特定的意义。如allowance一词通常指"允许"、"津贴"，而在经贸合同中则多指"折扣"。
4） 长句、复杂句较多。公文体为使其逻辑严谨，表意准确，在句法上常常叠床架屋，以至使得句式有时显得臃肿迟滞，同时句子的长度也大为增加。
（二） 公文的翻译

（一） 商贸函电的文体特点

1） 措词简洁明了。为使表达明晰，商贸函电在措词上力求简明扼要，不太讲究修饰。
2） 用语正式庄重。正式庄重的语言常常显得诚恳、自然、有礼貌，因此常用于商贸函电中。
3） 专业术语较多。如FOB（离岸价）、CIF （到岸价）、settlement（理赔）、L/C（信用证）、AC（承兑）等。
4） 具有相对固定的格式。商贸函电格式相对固定，大体上由以下六个部分组成：
a. 信头（the heading） b. 信内地址（the inside address） c. 称呼（the salutation） d. 信文（the body） e. 结束语（the complimentary close） f. 签名（the signature）[详细内容参见教材p274]
（二） 商贸函电的翻译

TKS F UR OFA
BUT RGRTS UR PRICES TOO HIGH F OUR MKT， AS GDS OF JAPANESE MAKE WITH SimILAR DES R ON SALE HR AT MCH LOWER PRICES. IF U RDU UR PRICE BY 5PCT， V WL ODA 1000 SETS.
PLS TAKE THIS MATTR INTO CONSIDERATION N RPL ASAP. RGDS.

1） 在措词上，广告英语使用的词汇一般较为简洁，具有口语化倾向。这一方面能使读者尽快得到所需要的信息，另一方面口语词汇的使用也便于人们对广告的理解和记忆。另外不少广告还经常使用模拟生造新词（coinage）甚至错拼词，这不仅可以体现这些广告独特的个性，还能大大增强其对消费者的新鲜感和吸引力。
2） 在句法上，广告英语的特点表现为句式简单，祈使句、主动句及省略句使用懂易记，还能充分发挥其说服功能（persuasive function），同时也能达到节省篇幅的目的。
3） 在修辞上，广告英语常使用双关、拟人、比喻及押韵等修辞手段以提高产品的品位和吸引力。另外，为了强调某一信息，加深人们对产品的印象，广告还常常使用重复手法，对某些词、词组或句子进行重复。这些修辞手法的运用可充分体现广告的说服功能和美感功能（aesthetic function），并有效地增强广告的表现力。
4） 英语分类广告中还经常出现一些缩略词。其缩略方式与电报、电传中的不尽相同，同一缩写形式因文体语域不同，所指也会有所不同。例如：
RE=real estate房地产(RE在商贸电传中=refer to)
apt= apartment公寓(APT电传中=aparture)appt= appointment约会
secy= secretary秘书 recept= reception/receptionist接待/接待员
（二） 广告英语的翻译

Fresh up with Seven-up -- Seven-up

1) 措词严谨规范。论说文的功用主要在于对某一观点进行解释、说明或阐述，因此，此类文章讲求理性与逻辑性，在措词上表现为正式语体的词、大词、抽象词、外来词用得较多，而绝少使用俚语俗语及过于口语化的词，以体现其庄重、严谨的特点。
2) 句法及篇章结构较为复杂。由于论述文旨在解析思想，阐发论点，辨明事理，展开论证，因此文章内容往往比较复杂。为全面、慎密地表述自己的见解，避免片面、疏漏，论说文中往往长句、复杂句使用较多。另外论说文讲究谋篇布局及条理层次，因而在篇章结构上较为复杂，往往段落之间环环相扣，层层递进。除此之外，论说文还十分讲究修辞，辞格上多用排比、递进、设问等，以增强文章的感染力和说服力。

Science and Ethics
Science impinges upon ethics in at least five different ways.
In the first place, by its application it creates new ethical situations. Two hundred years ago the news of a famine in China created no duty for Englishmen. They could take no possible action against it. Today the telegraph and the steam engine have made such action possible, and it becomes an ethical problem what action, if any, is right. Two hundred years ago a workman generally owned his own tools. Now his tool may be a crane or steam hammer, and we all have our own views as to whether these should belong to shareholders, the State, or guilds representing the workers.
Secondly, it may create new duties by pointing out previously unexpected consequences of our actions. We are all greed that we should not run the risk of spreading typhoid by polluting the public water supply. We are probably divided as to the duty of vaccinating our children, and we may not all be of one mind as to whether a person likely to transmit club foot or cataract to half his or her children should be compelled to abstain from parenthood.
Thirdly, science affects our whole ethical outlook by influencing our views as to the nature of the world-in fact, by supplanting mythology. One man may see men and animals as a great brotherhood of common ancestry and thus feel an enlargement of his obligations. Another will regard even the noblest aspects of human nature as products of a ruthless struggle for existence and thus justify a refusal to assist the weak and suffering. A third, impressed with the vanity of human efforts amid the vast indifference of the universe, will take refuge in a modified epicureanism. In all these attitudes and in many others there is at least some element of rightness.
Fourthly, in so far as anthropology is becoming scientific, it is bound to have a profound effect on ethics by showing that any given ethical code is only one of a number practiced with equal conviction and almost equal success; in fact, by creating comparative ethics. But, of course, any serious study of the habits of foreigners, whether scientific or not, had this effect, as comes out plainly enough in the history of ancient Greek ethics. Hence science is not wholly responsible for the ethical results of anthropology.

1） 理清原文的篇章结构。论说文的篇章结构往往较为复杂，因此在着手翻译前译者应首先分析一下原文的结构与布局，理清段与段之间的关系，以便从整体上把握全文的脉络。
2） 谨慎遣词造句。论说文在遣词造句上有其明显的特点，因此翻译中译者必须最大限度的体现原文在字、词、句方面的文体特征。在措词方面，一定要使译文与原文在语域上相适应。在句法方面，译文在避免翻译腔的同时应反映原文的句法特征，以体现论说文严谨、慎密的特点。此外，译文还应尽量再现原文的修辞特征，例如，原文如有排比结构，则译文也应设法以排比结构将之译出，以体现原文的气势与感染力。
3） 如果原文作者引经据典，译者在翻译中可采取加注或.释义的方法。如译一般论说文，以上2种方法则可视情况选用。如译演讲或发言，应以后一种方法为主。这主要是考虑到译文的语篇功能应与原文对等。当然，如果我们翻译一篇演讲或发言，只为他人参考或为了研究等别的目的，那么译者在处理典故时，不妨多用加注的方法，以便读者参考或弄清出处。

Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
But in a large sense, we cannot dedicate - we cannot consecrate - we cannot hallow - this ground. The brave men, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here; but it can never forget what did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion - that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain - that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom - and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

（一）词汇层面
（1） 新闻报道通常拥有自己的一些惯用词汇，或者叫做"新闻词语"，如story一词意思常常是news item或news report，而probe一词则指"（新闻）调查"，如中央电视台的一个重要栏目"新闻调查"即译为News Probe。还有如cut表示reduction；bar表示prevent；curb表示restrain或control等等。常见的其他例子还有：
accord (give) ban (prohibition)bid (attempt) boost (rise, increase) clash (disagreement) deal (business agreement) freeze (stabilization) loom(appear) blaze(fire) comb(search) row [rau] (violent argument) rap(to speak severely to, to blame, to punish) move (plan, decision, suggestion)round(a series of action) shock (astonishment, blow) shun(to keep away from…) heist (robbery) viable (workable) voice(express) operation(activities) pact (agreement) woo (to seek to win…，to persuade…) fake (counterfeit)

（2） 为了表达的需要和追求新奇以吸引读者，新闻英语中常会使用一些新词（包括旧词赋新义）和临时生造的词（nonce words），以使文章生动活泼，并给人以新奇之感。如gay (同性恋者)，basket (一组问题等)，unisex (男女共用)，hijack (劫持)，supercrat (高级官员)，dial in (电话示威)，moneywise (在金钱方面)，thumbsuck (安抚)，sitcom (情景喜剧)，Reaganomics (里根经济学)，Jazznik (爵士乐迷 )，heartmen (换心人)，Euromart (欧洲共同市场)，Masscult (大众文化)，atobomb (原子弹)，blacketeer (黑市商人)等。在这一点上，新闻英语与广告英语十分相似。
（3） 新闻英语还广泛借用社会各界的行业用语以及外来词语。如从商业用语中它吸收借用了a package deal (一揽子交易)，从赌博业中它借用了showdown （摊派），从体育中借用了knockout (击败)等。而外来词语有如：coup de theatre (非常事件，源自法语，)，swindler (骗子，源自德语)，Zen (禅宗，源自日语)，renegade (变节分子，源自西班牙语)，rapport(两国间的亲善关系，源自法语)，macho (伟男气概，源自西班牙语)等等。
（4） 新闻英语还大量使用新闻套语，如according to…(eyewitness, AP reports, sources concerned, etc.)（据目击者，美联社，有关方面等），informative sources or well-informed source（消息灵通人士），with guarded reserve（持审慎态度），no comments（无可奉告），on the brink of a breakthrough（即将取得进展），quoted as saying (cited as saying)（援引……的话说）, in response to allegation in The New York Times（就《纽约时报》的提法发表评论），Not so, not yet（不置可否），preferred not to be identified（不愿透露姓名的）等等。
（5） 为节省篇幅，新闻报道还常使用缩略词，如：ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)，PC (personal computer)，TMD（Theater Missile Defense），memo (memorandum)，AIDS (Acquired immure Deficiency Syndrome)，mod (modern), Lab (Labor), Lib (Liberal), nukes (nuclear weapons), heliport (helicopter airport), NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), memo (memorandum), SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) 等等。
（二） 句法层面
（1） 为求得在较小的篇幅内容纳较多的信息量，新闻英语多采用扩展的简单句（expanded simple sentences），其方法是使用定语、状语、同位语、介词短语、分词短语等语言成分来扩展简单句。因此，英语报刊里经常出现一个句子就是一个段落的情况。而要把众多的信息包容到里面，在确保句式不过于复杂的前提下，作者只有大量使用或增加修饰限定词的数量。试看下列一则报道：
LAGOS, Dec. 15(Reuter) - The Nigerian foreign ministry's offices were completely destroyed by a fire in the center of Lagos Monday night.
Eyewitnesses gave conflicting reports about the number of people injured in the blaze, which firemen suspect was caused by an electrical fault.
One fireman said four people had been rescued from the ministry, suffering from minor injuries. About 100 firemen were unable to prevent the blaze spreading to buildings beside the seven-storey ministry.
The foreign ministry, which lost many valuable records in the blaze, was due to be moved to a new site shortly.
The building, completely gutted by the blaze, also housed offices of the information ministry and the ministry of science and technology.
（2） 广泛使用直接引语间接引语。这既可增添新闻报道的真实性和生动性，又可显示其客观性。
（3）新闻英语多用主动语态，但为了叙事的客观和便利，有时也使用一些被动结构。
（4）正文较多地使用现在时，而标题所使用的时态则几乎都是现在时，这可对读者产生一种"某事正在发生"的印象，从而增强其真实感和现实感。例如：China Starts WAP Service. / Longevity star dies at 110.
（5）标题中常使用省略句。像冠词、动词、介词等常在标题中省略，这既可节省版面，又可使新闻的风格显得简洁明快。如：House and Senate Pursuing Efforts to Reduce Deficit (The New York Times) = The House of Representatives and the Senate are pursuing the efforts to reduce the deficit.
（三）语篇层面

1） 要准确理解一些常用词语在新闻英语中的特定含义。如前所述，新闻英语有自己特定的一套惯用词汇，因此译者首先应准确理解这些词在新闻英语中的特定含义。否则极易张冠李戴，造成误译
2） 要注意使译文的文体风格与原文相适应。总的来说，新闻英语语言正式程度适中，有时还带有一些会话语体色彩，所以译文语言不可太雅，亦不可过俗。但是，因为一些作者常在报道中引用当事人或其他相关人士的话语，也因一些作者有时会使用几个俚俗词语，所以译文语言的正式程度应尽可能与原文保持一致。此外，还应注意大报新闻语言特点与小报新闻文体特点的区别。一般说来，像《泰晤士报》、《纽约时报》一类的大报文体较为严肃正规，而像《每日镜报》、《纽约邮报》一类的小报则大多语言轻松活泼，词语正式程度偏低。因此译者必须认真分析原文的文体特点，使译文与原文保持文体上的一致。
3） 处理好新闻中的新词和生造词。如遇新词和生造词，首先可依据英语构词法对其在词形上加以辨析，比如找出该词的词根或词缀，以帮助理解其词意。另外要从词的联立关系和上下文中，即该词与其它词的搭配、组合和它的各种语境中去寻找线索，判断该词可能的意义。如果经以上考证后仍不得其意，则可给出该词的音译，并在随后的括号内写上原英文词，必要时还可加脚注。这里所说的"新词"就是那些字典中查不到的词，那些按照你原先知道的词意译出但又发现语意逻辑不通的词。
4） 行文要力求简明。语言要平实，不可浮华夸张，不要掺杂个人感情，在名词前加修饰语时应慎重。
5） 翻译时不要为某些动词的时态所惑，注意原文的一些特殊语法现象。如 Largest Chinese trade delegation to visit US in Nov. 中省去了to前的is，Deposits, loans rising in HK意为Deposits and loans are rising in HK.， 而 2 Workmen Injured in Electrical Accident则意为2 Workmen Are Injured…。
6） 标题翻译要尽量与原文一样简短，要注重译文能象原文一样传神达意。例如: Four Killed and Five Hurt in a House Fire 可译为"房屋起火五伤四亡"；Soccer kicks off with Violence可译为"足球开赛脚踢拳打"。

（一）词汇层面
（1） 专业术语多。专业术语指某一学科领域所特有或专用的语汇，其词义常不为专业外读者所明白，如cryogenics (低温学)、norepinephrine (新肾上腺素)等。这些专业术语的特点是：a. 词形较长，大多含有源于拉丁语、希腊语和法语的词根、词缀。这类词语的语义范围较为狭窄，意义较为明确固定，符合科技英语准确明晰的要求。如：nucleonics (核子学)，semisomnus (半昏迷)，autoradiography (自动射线照相术)，excoriation (表皮脱落)等。b. 多复合词。人们常常通过各种构词方法创造出一些复合词来表示科技发展中出现的新事物，如radiophotography (无线电传真)，anti-armored fighting vehicle missile(反装甲车导弹) 等。c. 多缩略词。为使用便利和节省时间，科技英语同经贸英语一样，也有许多缩略词，如cpd (compound化合物)，FM (frequency modulation调频)，telesat(telecommunications satellite通讯卫星)等。
（2） 准专业术语和词汇多。准专业词汇指的是那些在不同学科中都存在但意义所指不同的词汇，其中有相当数量的词汇属于普通常用词汇。如frame一词在日常英语中指"框架"，而在机械原理中指"机架"，在电讯技术中又作"帧"或"镜头"解；normal在化学中指"中性的"、"当量的"和"标准浓度"，在物理上指"简正的"，在数学上指"垂直的"、"法线的"和"法线"，在生理上又指"不受感染的"；transmission在无线电工程学中指"发射"，在机械学中指"传动"、"变速"，在物理学中指"透射"，而在医学中又指"遗传"。
（一） 句法层面
（1） 多名词化结构。为使行文简洁，科技英语中多用表示动作或状态的抽象名词或起名词功用的V-ing形式以及名词短语结构。如the transmission and reception of images of moving objects by radio waves (通过无线电波来发射和接收活动物体的图像)；computer programming teaching device manual (计算机程序编制教学装置手册)，the generation of heat by friction (摩擦生热)等。
（2） 多长句和逻辑关联词(logic connectors)。科技英语中虽然大量使用名词化词语、名词短语结构以及悬垂结构来压缩句子长度，但是为了将事理充分说明，也常常使用一些含有许多短语和分句的长句，同时还常使用许多逻辑关联词，如hence, consequently, accordingly, then, however, but, yet, also, on the contrary, as a result, furthermore, finally, in short等，以使行文逻辑关系清楚、层次条理分明。
（3） 多用一般现在时和完成时。这两种时态之所以在科技英语中常见，是因为前者可以较好地表现文章内容的无时间性，说明文章中的科学定义、定理、公式不受时间限制，任何时候都成立；后者则多用来表述已经发现或获得的研究成果。
（4） 多被动语态。英语中的被动语态要比汉语中的多，在各种文体中都是这样，在科技英语中尤为突出。国外有学者统计，在物理、化学、工程类教科书里，全部限定动词中至少有三分之一用被动语态，著名语言学家Quirk曾说科技英语中被动语态的使用率要比主动态高出十多倍。科技英语的语旨是要阐述客观事物的本质特征，描述其发生、发展及变化过程，表述客观事物间的联系，所以它的主体通常是客观事物或自然现象，这样一来，被动语态也就得以大量使用。此外，被动语态所带有的叙述客观性也使得作者的论述更显科学从而避免主观色彩。与这一特点相适应的是科技英语中少用第一人称和第二人称，即便是非用不可也常常是使用它们的复数形式以增强论述的客观性。
（5） 先行it结构多。将较长的主语从句放到句末而用形式主语it来引导句子，可以避免句子结构上的头重脚轻，也使行文更加凝重平稳，符合科技英语的总体风格。
（6） 介词词组连用多。为了较为简练地反映各事物(即各句子成分)之间的时空、所属、因果等逻辑关系，科技英语中介词词组(短语)连用较多。例如：
The action of air on an airplane in flight at low altitude is greater than that at high altitude.

1） 了解相关专业知识

2） 准确理解词义

3） 仔细分析长句

4） 用词要得体

5） 熟悉构词法。熟悉构词法，特别是科技词汇的常见构词法，对于准确理解词义，特别是新词词义，有着非常重要的意义。以下简要说明科技词汇的几种主要的构词法。
(1) 合成法。合成法指将两个或两个以上的词组合成一个新词，如heartman (换心人)，fallout (放射性尘埃)，photobotany (光植物学)，salt former (卤素)，hot press(热压)。结合后形成的新词，其义多为单个词语词义的叠加，但有的也会发生变异，翻译时要予以注意，如waterproof（防水的），heart burn（胃灼热/心口灼热）以及上边提到的heartman。
(2) 拼缀法。拼缀法(或词缀法)是指在一个旧词前或后加上词缀构成新词的方法。科技英语中以这一方法构成的新词最多，可以说俯拾皆是，如antiparticle (反粒子)，antineutron (反中子)，antibody (抗体)；semisynthetic (半合成的)， autocorrelation (自相关)等。需要指出的是以V+er/or构成的词，有许多是指某一仪器而不指人，如semicorrelator (自相关器)，conductor (导体)，holder (支架/托)等，这一点译者应留意。
(3) 混成法。将原有二词各取其中一部分(有时还是某一词的全部)合成新词。如teleprinter+exchange = telex (电传)，copy+electron=copytron (电子复印)。这样构成的一些词，其新义大都是原词各义的叠加，以前者修饰后者的为多，如biorhythm (biological+ rhythm) (生理节奏)。
(4) 缩略法。以首字母缩略为主，即将某一词组中的几个主要词的首字母合起来组成新词。如AC (alternating current交流电)，DC (direct current直流电)，CCTV(closed circuit television闭路电视) 以及teleran (television radar air navigation电视雷达导航仪) 等。这些词的翻译，请参阅有关术语翻译部分。还须注意的是，一种缩略形式，可能是好几个不同词或词组的共同的缩略形，翻译时必须依据上下文加以分析。如APC，它可以是American Power Conference (美国动力会议) 的缩写，也可是adjustable pressure conveyor (调压输送机) 的缩写，还可以代表automatic phase control (自动相位调整)或是automatic program control (自动程序控制)。而AC在不同的语境中，则可有多达28个不同的意义，如：① bsorption coefficient (吸收系数), ② adapter cable (适配电缆), ③ adjustment calibration (调整──校准), ④ air condenser (空气冷凝器，空气电容器), ⑤ air conditioner(空调器), ⑥ analog computer(模拟计算机) 等。所以，翻译缩略词一定要搞清它是哪些词或词组的缩写，手头有一本英汉科技词典和缩略语大词典是很有必要的。
6） 熟悉数量增减表达法

7）注意术语的准确表达与翻译

（一） 英语小说的文体特征

1） 语言的形象性

（1） 准确。如果一个作家要写一个人行走的动作，他会在十几个表示形态各异的行走动词中选择一个最为贴切的。如果是写一个人的哭，他也会在cry，sob，weep等词语之间作出理想的取舍。
（2） 多限定词、修饰词。这也是为了使描述准确和具体。如D·H·劳伦斯的The Odour of Chrysanthemums 的开头一句：The small locomotive engine, Number 4, came clanking, stumbling down from Selston with seven full wagons.(四号小火车的车头拖着七节装满货物的车厢，从赛尔斯顿方向跌跌撞撞地开了过来，一路上发出叮叮咣咣的声响。)读者读之，如闻其声，如见其形，而同样一个场景，如要用抽象的语汇进行描述，读者的感受就大不相同了。
2） 人物语言的个性化

"Hello, Jim, have I been asleep? Why didn't you stir me up?""Goodness gracious, is dat you, Huck? En you ain' dead-you ain' drownded-you's back agin? It's too good for true, honey, it is too good for true. Lemme look at you, chile ,lemme feel o'you…"

3） 修辞格的广泛运用

4） 复杂多变的句式

5） 叙述时空的混乱

（二） 英语小说的翻译

"I hate the whole house," continued Miss Sharp in a fury."I hope I may never set eyes on it again. I wish it were in the bottom of the Thames, I do; and if Miss Pinkerton were there, I wouldn't pick her out, that I wouldn't. O how I should like to see her floating in the water yonder, turban and all, with her train streaming after her, and her nose like the beak of a wherry."夏泼小姐狠狠地说道："我恨透了这整个儿的学校。但愿我一辈子也别再看见它，我恨不得叫它沉到泰晤士河里去。倘若平克顿小姐掉在河里，我也不高兴捞她起来。我才不干呢!哈!我就爱看她在水里泡着，头上包着包头布，后面拖着个大裙子，鼻子像个小船似的浮在水面上。"

(一) 散文语言的特点

（二） 散文的翻译

Sleep is most graceful in an infant; soundest, in one who has been tired in the open air; completest, to the seaman after a hard voyage; most welcome, to the mind haunted with one idea; most touching to look at, in the parent that has wept; lightest, in the playful child; proudest, in the bride adored.

（一） 英语诗歌的特点
1） 语言的音韵美和节奏感

2） 破格与变异

3）词句的重复与修辞格的广泛运用

4） 丰富的意象与象征

（二） 诗歌的翻译

The curfew tolls the knell of parting day,
The lowing herd wind slowly o'er the lea,
The plowman homeward plods his weary way,
And leaves the world to darkness and to me.

（一） 舞台剧及影视剧本的语言特点

 （二） 剧本的翻译

"原著内容之丰富，确实堪称近、现代中国的百科全书。贯穿全书内容的作者对民主、改革、爱国的思想在蒙上一层庄子哲学的神秘、梦幻，命运论的色彩。这就要求译者不仅应是"近代中国通"，而且还应是"古代中国通"。不但要能对现代汉语和白话文运用自如而且还要能精通活用古代汉语和文言文。张教授译林博士的这部宏篇巨著，确实"门当户对"，不仅译文忠实地再现了原著的思想内容，而且译得色调鲜明，形象入微，活灵活现，传神入化。在下略举几例，管中窥豹，可见一斑。
The ignorant old woman who ruled for the entire last half of the nineteenth century did more than any other single person to hold back China's progress. Without her the progressive Emperor Kuanghsu would certainly have gone on with his reforms. To the end, the Emperor, like an eagle deprived of its wings, remained submissive to his aunt. Ignorance added to a strong character was a double curse; stupidity joining hands with stubbornness was twice stupid.

ignorant修饰慈禧太后，译成"愚蠢无知"，progressive修饰光绪皇帝，译成'锐意求进'，reforms译成'维新大计'，真是达意移情！ did more than any other single person to hold back China's progress译成'使中国不能进步，她可算功劳第一'，再现了原著幽默的风格。 ignorance added to a strong character译成'愚而妄'，was double curse译成'其为祸害则加倍的强烈'，stupidity joining hands with stubbornness译成'愚蠢再与刚愎携手'，was twice stupid译成'则愚蠢倍增'，不仅言简意赅，而且句式对仗，读起来上口，听起来入耳，增强了译作的感染力"。（舒启全："貌似神合 惟妙惟肖——评张振玉译《京华风云》"，《中国翻译》，1989年第2期）

If the cakes at tea ate short and crisp, they were made by Olivia; if the gooseberry wine was well knit, the gooseberries were of her hathering; it was her fingers which gave the pickles their peculiar green; and in composition of pudding it was her judgment that mixed the ingredients.

It was a typical summer evening in June, the atmosphere being in such delicate equilibrium and so transmissive that inanimate objects seemed endowed with two or three senses, if not five. There was no distinction between the near and the far, and an auditor felt close to everything within the horizon. The soundlessness impressed her as a positive entity rather than as the mere negation of noise. It was broken by the strumming of strings. (Tess of the d"Urbervilles, Chapter 19)

（选自马红军著《翻译批评散论》，中国对外翻译出版公司，第119-121页）

1） 分析原作。批评者必须了解原文作者的写作意图、写作态度、写作的读者对象、写作的类别，准确评估原作的语言水准和语言风格。这些内容也是我们作传统的文学批评时必须要弄清的几个问题，即: Who wrote the text? When was it written? Where was it written? For whom was it written? For what purpose was it written? How was it written?
2） 分析译者的目的。批评者应站在译者的角度来看待原作，了解译者所遵循的翻译原则、翻译步骤和方法以及译文的读者对象。换句话说，批评者必须弄清这么几个问题：What kind of translator was the person? Why did he do the translation? Under what circumstances did he do the translation? For whom did he do the translation? What translation principle did he observe while starting to do the translation? What procedures and methods did he follow while doing the translation?
3） 比较原文与译文。批评者在弄清原作的主题和中心思想、语言结构（包括段落的划分和语篇的衔接等内容）和各种修辞手法的前提下，应认真地对比分析原作和译作，审核译者是否在译文中完美地处理好了这些问题没有。批评者既可采用单一译文比较，也可采用数种译文比较。前者是指选择一种译文，将之与原文比较分析；后者是指选择数种译文同时与原文比较分析。一般说来，后一种方法更为批评者所钟情，究其原因不外乎是其更具深度和广度，更能取得圆满的结果。
4） 评估译文。批评者首先根据译者的翻译标准评估译文在表达方面是否准确地传达了原文所承载的信息，然后根据自己所选择的翻译标准去评估译文在表达方面是否成功地传达了原文要传达的东西。另外，批评者也可脱离原文来看待译文，将译文视为一部（篇）作品，从纯写作的角度来评价译作的得失。最后，评估译文（如原文为严肃之作）在译入语文化中的地位、该译作的现实和历史意义及翻译价值。

1. 翻译批评费工费时，容易招人非议，吃力不讨好；
2. 评价译文的视角颇多，常常是越说越说不清楚；
3. 有关原文作者和译文作者的信息资料不易找到，这样影响到批评的客观性和科学性；
4. 批评者自身的工作态度和专业素质不能适应高水平翻译批评的要求。

1. 充分了并认真贯彻执行党和国家的相关政策和法规，将翻译批评活动置于政治的要求之下；
2. 正视原文作者、译文作者和翻译批评者之间的时空距离，翻译批评时应该正确用历史唯物主义和辨证唯物主义的观点去看待这种距离；
3. 批评必须避免随意性和盲目性、杜绝胡批乱评和感想式的点评，应该在一定的理论指导下，历史地、客观地、全面地、系统地去观察和分析翻译过程和翻译结果，必须尽可能做到客观、科学和公正；
4. 批评者不仅必须具有良好的职业素质、严肃认真和一丝不苟的工作态度，扎实的语言基本功和广博的文化知识，而且应当同时是一个"作者、译者、译文阅读者、译文分析家、翻译理论家与翻译史家"；
5. 在有条件的情况下，批评者应尽可能地发现同一原文的数种译本；应用多种译文与原作进行对比分析更有可能增强批评的效果和说服力。

"五四"是我国近代翻译史的分水岭。"五四"以前的最显著的表现是以严复、林纾等为代表翻译了一系列西方资产阶级学术名著和文学作品。"五四"以后，我国翻译事业开创了一个新的历史时期，开始介绍马列主义经典著作和无产阶级文学作品。《XXX(违禁词汇，某个伟大，光荣，正确的组织)宣言》的译文就发表在"五四"时期。这一时期的翻译工作在内容和形式上都起了很大变化。白话文代替了文言文。东西方各国优秀文学作品，特别是俄国和苏联的作品，开始由我国近代翻译史上卓越的先驱者鲁迅、瞿秋白等前辈介绍进来。鲁迅是翻译工作上理论与实践相结合的典型。他和瞿秋白两人关于翻译问题的通讯，为我们提供了一些应遵循的基本翻译原则。他译过许多俄国和苏联的优秀文学作品，如《毁灭》、《死魂灵》等。他和瞿秋白通过翻译实践，总结了许多宝贵的经验。鲁迅对翻译标准的主要观点是："凡是翻译，必须兼顾着两面，一当然力求其易解，一则保持着原文的风资。"鲁迅竭力反对当时那种"牛头不对马嘴"、"削鼻剜眼"的胡译，乱译，他针对有人所谓"与其顺而不信"而提出了"宁信而不顺"这一原则。当然，鲁迅这条原则有"矫枉必须过正"的意味，但与借此作挡箭牌的"硬译"、"死译"实无共同之处。鲁迅主张直译，是为了照顾输入新表现法和保持原作的风貌，这于借直译作挡箭牌的"死译"也是丝毫无共同之处的。他们二人对待翻译工作的态度都十分严肃，至今仍是我们学习的榜样。

（一） 翻译工作者在党的领导下，有组织、有计划、有系统的进行工作，逐步取代了抢译、乱译和重复浪费的现象；
（二） 翻译作品质量大大提高，逐渐克服了粗枝大叶、不负责的风气；
（三） 翻译工作者为了更好地为社会主义建设服务，开展了批评于自我批评，逐渐消除了过去各种不良现象和无人过问的状况；
（四） 翻译工作者不仅肩负者外译汉的任务；
（五） 对翻译标准的认识日趋统一，有效的推动了我国的翻译工作。特别是在过去的二十年中，我国广大翻译工作者也积极响应党的号召，通过认真的辛勤的翻译劳动，介绍和交流先进科技知识、优秀文艺作品以及民族文化，为我国四个现代化和世界和平不断做出新的贡献。

（一） 古代西方翻译

（ 二） 中世纪西方翻译

（三） 文艺复兴时期的西方翻译

（四） 现代西方翻译