【Android】【录音】Android录音--AudioRecord、MediaRecorder

    Android提供了两个API用于实现录音功能:android.media.AudioRecord、android.media.MediaRecorder。

    网上有很多谈论这两个类的资料。现在大致总结下:

1、AudioRecord

主要是实现边录边播(AudioRecord+AudioTrack)以及对音频的实时处理(如会说话的汤姆猫、语音)

优点:语音的实时处理,可以用代码实现各种音频的封装

缺点:输出是PCM语音数据,如果保存成音频文件,是不能够被播放器播放的,所以必须先写代码实现数据编码以及压缩

示例:

使用AudioRecord类录音,并实现WAV格式封装。录音20s,输出的音频文件大概为3.5M左右(已写测试代码)

2、MediaRecorder

已经集成了录音、编码、压缩等,支持少量的录音音频格式,大概有.aac(API = 16) .amr .3gp

优点:大部分以及集成,直接调用相关接口即可,代码量小

缺点:无法实时处理音频;输出的音频格式不是很多,例如没有输出mp3格式文件

示例:

使用MediaRecorder类录音,输出amr格式文件。录音20s,输出的音频文件大概为33K(已写测试代码)

3、音频格式比较

WAV格式:录音质量高,但是压缩率小,文件大

AAC格式:相对于mp3,AAC格式的音质更佳,文件更小;有损压缩;一般苹果或者Android SDK4.1.2(API 16)及以上版本支持播放

AMR格式:压缩比比较大,但相对其他的压缩格式质量比较差,多用于人声,通话录音

至于常用的mp3格式,使用MediaRecorder没有该视频格式输出。一些人的做法是使用AudioRecord录音,然后编码成wav格式,再转换成mp3格式

 

    再贴上一些测试工程。

功能描述:

1、点击“录音WAV文件”,开始录音。录音完成后,生成文件/sdcard/FinalAudio.wav

2、点击“录音AMR文件”,开始录音。录音完成后,生成文件/sdcard/FinalAudio.amr

3、点击“停止录音”,停止录音,并显示录音输出文件以及该文件大小。

 

大致代码如下:

1、AudioRecord录音,封装成WAV格式

package com.example.audiorecordtest;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;

import android.media.AudioFormat;
import android.media.AudioRecord;

public class AudioRecordFunc { 
    // 缓冲区字节大小  
    private int bufferSizeInBytes = 0;
    
    //AudioName裸音频数据文件 ,麦克风
    private String AudioName = "";  
    
    //NewAudioName可播放的音频文件  
    private String NewAudioName = "";
    
    private AudioRecord audioRecord;  
    private boolean isRecord = false;// 设置正在录制的状态  
    
    
    private static AudioRecordFunc mInstance; 
         
    private AudioRecordFunc(){
    	
    }   
    
    public synchronized static AudioRecordFunc getInstance()
    {
        if(mInstance == null) 
        	mInstance = new AudioRecordFunc(); 
        return mInstance; 
    }
    
    public int startRecordAndFile() {
    	//判断是否有外部存储设备sdcard
    	if(AudioFileFunc.isSdcardExit())
    	{
    		if(isRecord)
    		{
    			return ErrorCode.E_STATE_RECODING;
    		}
    		else
    		{
    			if(audioRecord == null)
    				creatAudioRecord();
    			
    			audioRecord.startRecording();  
        		// 让录制状态为true  
        		isRecord = true;  
        		// 开启音频文件写入线程  
        		new Thread(new AudioRecordThread()).start();  
        		
        		return ErrorCode.SUCCESS;
    		}
    		
    	}    	
    	else
    	{
    		return ErrorCode.E_NOSDCARD;    		
    	}    	

    }  
  
    public void stopRecordAndFile() {  
        close();  
    }
    
    
    public long getRecordFileSize(){
    	return AudioFileFunc.getFileSize(NewAudioName);
    }
    
  
    private void close() {  
        if (audioRecord != null) {  
            System.out.println("stopRecord");  
            isRecord = false;//停止文件写入  
            audioRecord.stop();  
            audioRecord.release();//释放资源  
            audioRecord = null;  
        }  
    }
    
    
    private void creatAudioRecord() {  
    	// 获取音频文件路径
    	AudioName = AudioFileFunc.getRawFilePath();
    	NewAudioName = AudioFileFunc.getWavFilePath(); 
    	
        // 获得缓冲区字节大小  
        bufferSizeInBytes = AudioRecord.getMinBufferSize(AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_SAMPLE_RATE,  
        		AudioFormat.CHANNEL_IN_STEREO, AudioFormat.ENCODING_PCM_16BIT);  
        
        // 创建AudioRecord对象  
        audioRecord = new AudioRecord(AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_INPUT, AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_SAMPLE_RATE,  
        		AudioFormat.CHANNEL_IN_STEREO, AudioFormat.ENCODING_PCM_16BIT, bufferSizeInBytes);  
    }
    
	
	class AudioRecordThread implements Runnable {  
        @Override  
        public void run() {  
            writeDateTOFile();//往文件中写入裸数据  
            copyWaveFile(AudioName, NewAudioName);//给裸数据加上头文件  
        }  
    }  
  
    /** 
     * 这里将数据写入文件,但是并不能播放,因为AudioRecord获得的音频是原始的裸音频, 
     * 如果需要播放就必须加入一些格式或者编码的头信息。但是这样的好处就是你可以对音频的 裸数据进行处理,比如你要做一个爱说话的TOM 
     * 猫在这里就进行音频的处理,然后重新封装 所以说这样得到的音频比较容易做一些音频的处理。 
     */  
    private void writeDateTOFile() {  
        // new一个byte数组用来存一些字节数据,大小为缓冲区大小  
        byte[] audiodata = new byte[bufferSizeInBytes];  
        FileOutputStream fos = null;  
        int readsize = 0;  
        try {  
            File file = new File(AudioName);  
            if (file.exists()) {  
                file.delete();  
            }  
            fos = new FileOutputStream(file);// 建立一个可存取字节的文件  
        } catch (Exception e) {  
            e.printStackTrace();  
        }  
        while (isRecord == true) {  
            readsize = audioRecord.read(audiodata, 0, bufferSizeInBytes);  
            if (AudioRecord.ERROR_INVALID_OPERATION != readsize && fos!=null) {  
                try {  
                    fos.write(audiodata);  
                } catch (IOException e) {  
                    e.printStackTrace();  
                }  
            }  
        }  
        try {
        	if(fos != null)
        		fos.close();// 关闭写入流  
        } catch (IOException e) {  
            e.printStackTrace();  
        }  
    }  
  
    // 这里得到可播放的音频文件  
    private void copyWaveFile(String inFilename, String outFilename) {  
        FileInputStream in = null;  
        FileOutputStream out = null;  
        long totalAudioLen = 0;  
        long totalDataLen = totalAudioLen + 36;  
        long longSampleRate = AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_SAMPLE_RATE;  
        int channels = 2;  
        long byteRate = 16 * AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_SAMPLE_RATE * channels / 8;  
        byte[] data = new byte[bufferSizeInBytes];  
        try {  
            in = new FileInputStream(inFilename);  
            out = new FileOutputStream(outFilename);  
            totalAudioLen = in.getChannel().size();  
            totalDataLen = totalAudioLen + 36;  
            WriteWaveFileHeader(out, totalAudioLen, totalDataLen,  
                    longSampleRate, channels, byteRate);  
            while (in.read(data) != -1) {  
                out.write(data);  
            }  
            in.close();  
            out.close();  
        } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {  
            e.printStackTrace();  
        } catch (IOException e) {  
            e.printStackTrace();  
        }  
    }  
  
    /** 
     * 这里提供一个头信息。插入这些信息就可以得到可以播放的文件。 
     * 为我为啥插入这44个字节,这个还真没深入研究,不过你随便打开一个wav 
     * 音频的文件,可以发现前面的头文件可以说基本一样哦。每种格式的文件都有 
     * 自己特有的头文件。 
     */  
    private void WriteWaveFileHeader(FileOutputStream out, long totalAudioLen,  
            long totalDataLen, long longSampleRate, int channels, long byteRate)  
            throws IOException {  
        byte[] header = new byte[44];  
        header[0] = 'R'; // RIFF/WAVE header  
        header[1] = 'I';  
        header[2] = 'F';  
        header[3] = 'F';  
        header[4] = (byte) (totalDataLen & 0xff);  
        header[5] = (byte) ((totalDataLen >> 8) & 0xff);  
        header[6] = (byte) ((totalDataLen >> 16) & 0xff);  
        header[7] = (byte) ((totalDataLen >> 24) & 0xff);  
        header[8] = 'W';  
        header[9] = 'A';  
        header[10] = 'V';  
        header[11] = 'E';  
        header[12] = 'f'; // 'fmt ' chunk  
        header[13] = 'm';  
        header[14] = 't';  
        header[15] = ' ';  
        header[16] = 16; // 4 bytes: size of 'fmt ' chunk  
        header[17] = 0;  
        header[18] = 0;  
        header[19] = 0;  
        header[20] = 1; // format = 1  
        header[21] = 0;  
        header[22] = (byte) channels;  
        header[23] = 0;  
        header[24] = (byte) (longSampleRate & 0xff);  
        header[25] = (byte) ((longSampleRate >> 8) & 0xff);  
        header[26] = (byte) ((longSampleRate >> 16) & 0xff);  
        header[27] = (byte) ((longSampleRate >> 24) & 0xff);  
        header[28] = (byte) (byteRate & 0xff);  
        header[29] = (byte) ((byteRate >> 8) & 0xff);  
        header[30] = (byte) ((byteRate >> 16) & 0xff);  
        header[31] = (byte) ((byteRate >> 24) & 0xff);  
        header[32] = (byte) (2 * 16 / 8); // block align  
        header[33] = 0;  
        header[34] = 16; // bits per sample  
        header[35] = 0;  
        header[36] = 'd';  
        header[37] = 'a';  
        header[38] = 't';  
        header[39] = 'a';  
        header[40] = (byte) (totalAudioLen & 0xff);  
        header[41] = (byte) ((totalAudioLen >> 8) & 0xff);  
        header[42] = (byte) ((totalAudioLen >> 16) & 0xff);  
        header[43] = (byte) ((totalAudioLen >> 24) & 0xff);  
        out.write(header, 0, 44);  
    }  
}

 

2、MediaRecorder录音,输出amr格式音频

package com.example.audiorecordtest;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.IOException;

import android.media.MediaRecorder;

public class MediaRecordFunc {	
	private boolean isRecord = false;
	
	private MediaRecorder mMediaRecorder;
	private MediaRecordFunc(){
	}
	
	private static MediaRecordFunc mInstance;
	public synchronized static MediaRecordFunc getInstance(){
		if(mInstance == null)
			mInstance = new MediaRecordFunc();
		return mInstance;
	}
	
	public int startRecordAndFile(){
		//判断是否有外部存储设备sdcard
    	if(AudioFileFunc.isSdcardExit())
    	{
    		if(isRecord)
    		{
    			return ErrorCode.E_STATE_RECODING;
    		}
    		else
    		{
    			if(mMediaRecorder == null)
    				createMediaRecord();
    			
    			try{
    				mMediaRecorder.prepare();
    				mMediaRecorder.start();
    				// 让录制状态为true  
    				isRecord = true;
    				return ErrorCode.SUCCESS;
    			}catch(IOException ex){
    				ex.printStackTrace();
    				return ErrorCode.E_UNKOWN;
    			}
    		}
    		
    	}    	
    	else
    	{
    		return ErrorCode.E_NOSDCARD;    		
    	}    	
	}
	
	
	public void stopRecordAndFile(){
		 close();
	}
	
	public long getRecordFileSize(){
    	return AudioFileFunc.getFileSize(AudioFileFunc.getAMRFilePath());
    }
	
	
	private void createMediaRecord(){
		 /* ①Initial:实例化MediaRecorder对象 */
		mMediaRecorder = new MediaRecorder();
		
		/* setAudioSource/setVedioSource*/
		mMediaRecorder.setAudioSource(AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_INPUT);//设置麦克风
		
		/* 设置输出文件的格式:THREE_GPP/MPEG-4/RAW_AMR/Default
		 * THREE_GPP(3gp格式,H263视频/ARM音频编码)、MPEG-4、RAW_AMR(只支持音频且音频编码要求为AMR_NB)
		 */
		 mMediaRecorder.setOutputFormat(MediaRecorder.OutputFormat.DEFAULT);
		 
		 /* 设置音频文件的编码:AAC/AMR_NB/AMR_MB/Default */
		 mMediaRecorder.setAudioEncoder(MediaRecorder.AudioEncoder.DEFAULT);
		 
		 /* 设置输出文件的路径 */
		 File file = new File(AudioFileFunc.getAMRFilePath());
         if (file.exists()) {  
             file.delete();  
         } 
		 mMediaRecorder.setOutputFile(AudioFileFunc.getAMRFilePath());
	}
	
	
	private void close(){
		if (mMediaRecorder != null) {  
            System.out.println("stopRecord");  
            isRecord = false;
            mMediaRecorder.stop();  
            mMediaRecorder.release();  
            mMediaRecorder = null;
        }  
	}
}
 

3、其他文件

AudioFileFunc.java

package com.example.audiorecordtest;

import java.io.File;

import android.media.MediaRecorder;
import android.os.Environment;

public class AudioFileFunc {
	//音频输入-麦克风
	public final static int AUDIO_INPUT = MediaRecorder.AudioSource.MIC;
	
	//采用频率
	//44100是目前的标准,但是某些设备仍然支持22050,16000,11025
	public final static int AUDIO_SAMPLE_RATE = 44100;	//44.1KHz,普遍使用的频率	
	//录音输出文件
	private final static String AUDIO_RAW_FILENAME = "RawAudio.raw";
	private final static String AUDIO_WAV_FILENAME = "FinalAudio.wav";
	public final static String AUDIO_AMR_FILENAME = "FinalAudio.amr";
	
	/**
	 * 判断是否有外部存储设备sdcard
	 * @return true | false
	 */
	public static boolean isSdcardExit(){    	
    	if (Environment.getExternalStorageState().equals(android.os.Environment.MEDIA_MOUNTED))
    		return true;
    	else
    		return false;
    }
		
	/**
	 * 获取麦克风输入的原始音频流文件路径
	 * @return
	 */
	public static String getRawFilePath(){
		String mAudioRawPath = "";
		if(isSdcardExit()){
			String fileBasePath = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory().getAbsolutePath();
    		mAudioRawPath = fileBasePath+"/"+AUDIO_RAW_FILENAME;
		}	
		
		return mAudioRawPath;
	}
	
	/**
	 * 获取编码后的WAV格式音频文件路径
	 * @return
	 */
	public static String getWavFilePath(){
		String mAudioWavPath = "";
		if(isSdcardExit()){
			String fileBasePath = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory().getAbsolutePath();
			mAudioWavPath = fileBasePath+"/"+AUDIO_WAV_FILENAME;
		}
		return mAudioWavPath;
	}
	
	
	/**
	 * 获取编码后的AMR格式音频文件路径
	 * @return
	 */
	public static String getAMRFilePath(){
		String mAudioAMRPath = "";
		if(isSdcardExit()){
			String fileBasePath = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory().getAbsolutePath();
			mAudioAMRPath = fileBasePath+"/"+AUDIO_AMR_FILENAME;
		}
		return mAudioAMRPath;
	}	
	
	
	/**
	 * 获取文件大小
	 * @param path,文件的绝对路径
	 * @return
	 */
	public static long getFileSize(String path){
		File mFile = new File(path);
    	if(!mFile.exists())
    		return -1;
    	return mFile.length();
	}

}

 

4、其他文件

ErrorCode.java

package com.example.audiorecordtest;

import android.content.Context;
import android.content.res.Resources.NotFoundException;

public class ErrorCode {
	public final static int SUCCESS = 1000;
	public final static int E_NOSDCARD = 1001;
	public final static int E_STATE_RECODING = 1002;
	public final static int E_UNKOWN = 1003;
	
	
	public static String getErrorInfo(Context vContext, int vType) throws NotFoundException
	{
		switch(vType)
		{
		case SUCCESS:
			return "success";
		case E_NOSDCARD:
			return vContext.getResources().getString(R.string.error_no_sdcard);
		case E_STATE_RECODING:
			return vContext.getResources().getString(R.string.error_state_record);	
		case E_UNKOWN:
		default:
			return vContext.getResources().getString(R.string.error_unknown);			
			
		}
	}

}

 

5、string.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>

    <string name="app_name">AudioRecordTest</string>
    <string name="hello_world">测试AudioRecord,实现录音功能</string>
    <string name="menu_settings">Settings</string>
    <string name="view_record_wav">录音WAV文件</string>
    <string name="view_record_amr">录音AMR文件</string>
    <string name="view_stop">停止录音</string>
    
    <string name="error_no_sdcard">没有SD卡,无法存储录音数据</string>
    <string name="error_state_record">正在录音中,请先停止录音</string>
    <string name="error_unknown">无法识别的错误</string>

</resources>

 

6、主程序MainActivity

package com.example.audiorecordtest; 

import android.app.Activity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.os.Handler;
import android.os.Message;
import android.util.Log;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.TextView; 

public class MainActivity extends Activity {
    private final static int FLAG_WAV = 0;
    private final static int FLAG_AMR = 1;
    private int mState = -1;    //-1:没再录制,0:录制wav,1:录制amr
    private Button btn_record_wav;
    private Button btn_record_amr;
    private Button btn_stop;
    private TextView txt;
    private UIHandler uiHandler;
    private UIThread uiThread; 

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);
        findViewByIds();
        setListeners();
        init();
    } 

    @Override
    public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
        // Inflate the menu; this adds items to the action bar if it is present.
        getMenuInflater().inflate(R.menu.activity_main, menu);
        return true;
    }
    private void findViewByIds(){
        btn_record_wav = (Button)this.findViewById(R.id.btn_record_wav);
        btn_record_amr = (Button)this.findViewById(R.id.btn_record_amr);
        btn_stop = (Button)this.findViewById(R.id.btn_stop);
        txt = (TextView)this.findViewById(R.id.text);
    }
    private void setListeners(){
        btn_record_wav.setOnClickListener(btn_record_wav_clickListener);
        btn_record_amr.setOnClickListener(btn_record_amr_clickListener);
        btn_stop.setOnClickListener(btn_stop_clickListener);
    }
    private void init(){
        uiHandler = new UIHandler();        
    }
    private Button.OnClickListener btn_record_wav_clickListener = new Button.OnClickListener(){
        public void onClick(View v){
            record(FLAG_WAV);
        }
    };
    private Button.OnClickListener btn_record_amr_clickListener = new Button.OnClickListener(){
        public void onClick(View v){
            record(FLAG_AMR);
        }
    };
    private Button.OnClickListener btn_stop_clickListener = new Button.OnClickListener(){
        public void onClick(View v){
            stop();     
        }
    };
    /**
     * 开始录音
     * @param mFlag,0:录制wav格式,1:录音amr格式
     */
    private void record(int mFlag){
        if(mState != -1){
            Message msg = new Message();
            Bundle b = new Bundle();// 存放数据
            b.putInt("cmd",CMD_RECORDFAIL);
            b.putInt("msg", ErrorCode.E_STATE_RECODING);
            msg.setData(b); 

            uiHandler.sendMessage(msg); // 向Handler发送消息,更新UI
            return;
        } 
        int mResult = -1;
        switch(mFlag){        
        case FLAG_WAV:
            AudioRecordFunc mRecord_1 = AudioRecordFunc.getInstance();
            mResult = mRecord_1.startRecordAndFile();            
            break;
        case FLAG_AMR:
            MediaRecordFunc mRecord_2 = MediaRecordFunc.getInstance();
            mResult = mRecord_2.startRecordAndFile();
            break;
        }
        if(mResult == ErrorCode.SUCCESS){
            uiThread = new UIThread();
            new Thread(uiThread).start();
            mState = mFlag;
        }else{
            Message msg = new Message();
            Bundle b = new Bundle();// 存放数据
            b.putInt("cmd",CMD_RECORDFAIL);
            b.putInt("msg", mResult);
            msg.setData(b); 

            uiHandler.sendMessage(msg); // 向Handler发送消息,更新UI
        }
    }
    /**
     * 停止录音
     */
    private void stop(){
        if(mState != -1){
            switch(mState){
            case FLAG_WAV:
                AudioRecordFunc mRecord_1 = AudioRecordFunc.getInstance();
                mRecord_1.stopRecordAndFile();
                break;
            case FLAG_AMR:
                MediaRecordFunc mRecord_2 = MediaRecordFunc.getInstance();
                mRecord_2.stopRecordAndFile();
                break;
            }            
            if(uiThread != null){
                uiThread.stopThread();
            }
            if(uiHandler != null)
                uiHandler.removeCallbacks(uiThread); 
            Message msg = new Message();
            Bundle b = new Bundle();// 存放数据
            b.putInt("cmd",CMD_STOP);
            b.putInt("msg", mState);
            msg.setData(b);
            uiHandler.sendMessageDelayed(msg,1000); // 向Handler发送消息,更新UI 
            mState = -1;
        }
    }    
    private final static int CMD_RECORDING_TIME = 2000;
    private final static int CMD_RECORDFAIL = 2001;
    private final static int CMD_STOP = 2002;
    class UIHandler extends Handler{
        public UIHandler() {
        }
        @Override
        public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
            // TODO Auto-generated method stub
            Log.d("MyHandler", "handleMessage......");
            super.handleMessage(msg);
            Bundle b = msg.getData();
            int vCmd = b.getInt("cmd");
            switch(vCmd)
            {
            case CMD_RECORDING_TIME:
                int vTime = b.getInt("msg");
                MainActivity.this.txt.setText("正在录音中,已录制:"+vTime+" s");
                break;
            case CMD_RECORDFAIL:
                int vErrorCode = b.getInt("msg");
                String vMsg = ErrorCode.getErrorInfo(MainActivity.this, vErrorCode);
                MainActivity.this.txt.setText("录音失败:"+vMsg);
                break;
            case CMD_STOP:                
                int vFileType = b.getInt("msg");
                switch(vFileType){
                case FLAG_WAV:
                    AudioRecordFunc mRecord_1 = AudioRecordFunc.getInstance(); 
                    long mSize = mRecord_1.getRecordFileSize();
                    MainActivity.this.txt.setText("录音已停止.录音文件:"+AudioFileFunc.getWavFilePath()+"\n文件大小:"+mSize);
                    break;
                case FLAG_AMR:                    
                    MediaRecordFunc mRecord_2 = MediaRecordFunc.getInstance();
                    mSize = mRecord_2.getRecordFileSize();
                    MainActivity.this.txt.setText("录音已停止.录音文件:"+AudioFileFunc.getAMRFilePath()+"\n文件大小:"+mSize);
                    break;
                }
                break;
            default:
                break;
            }
        }
    };
    class UIThread implements Runnable {        
        int mTimeMill = 0;
        boolean vRun = true;
        public void stopThread(){
            vRun = false;
        }
        public void run() {
            while(vRun){
                try {
                    Thread.sleep(1000);
                } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                    // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
                mTimeMill ++;
                Log.d("thread", "mThread........"+mTimeMill);
                Message msg = new Message();
                Bundle b = new Bundle();// 存放数据
                b.putInt("cmd",CMD_RECORDING_TIME);
                b.putInt("msg", mTimeMill);
                msg.setData(b); 

                MainActivity.this.uiHandler.sendMessage(msg); // 向Handler发送消息,更新UI
            } 

        }
    } 

}
posted @ 2013-02-04 12:59  风倾清凌  阅读(...)  评论(...编辑  收藏