Windows 下 命令行增强工具




支持命令完成(Command-line completion)和环境变量




Gow 是Windows 上轻量级的Cygwin 替代品,包含了130多个*nix 命令行工具,整个包大概10MB,安装时会自动加到PATH中去,其exe包含:

  • agrep 3.37
  • ansi2knr
  • basename 1.9.4
  • bash 2.03
  • bc 1.05
  • bison 1.28
  • bunzip2 1.0.1
  • bzip2 1.0.1
  • bzip2recover 1.0
  • cat 2.0
  • chgrp 3.16
  • chmod 3.16
  • chown 3.16
  • cksum 2.0
  • cmp 2.7
  • comm 2.0
  • compress 2.0
  • cp 3.16
  • csplit 2.0
  • curl 7.15.0
  • cut 2.0
  • cvs 2.0.41a
  • dc 1.2
  • dd 3.16
  • df 3.16
  • diff 2.7
  • diff3 2.7
  • dircolors 3.16
  • dirname 1.13
  • dos2unix
  • du 3.16
  • egrep 2.4.2
  • env 1.9.4
  • expand 5.1.2600.0
  • expr 1.9.4
  • factor 1.13
  • find 4.1 (called as gfind to not overwrite the Windows find.exe)
  • fgrep 2.4.2
  • flex 2.5.4
  • fmt 2.0
  • fold 2.0
  • fsplit
  • gawk 3.1.0
  • gclip 1.0
  • gow
  • gplay
  • grep 2.4.2
  • gsar 1.12
  • gunzip 1.2.4
  • gzip 1.2.4
  • head 2.0
  • id 1.9.4
  • indent 2.2.6
  • install 3.16
  • join 2.0
  • jwhois 2.4.1
  • less 340
  • lesskey 340
  • ln 3.16
  • logname 1.9.4
  • ls 3.16
  • m4 1.4
  • make 3.78.1
  • md5sum 2.0
  • mkdir
  • mkfifo
  • mknod 3.16
  • mv 3.16
  • mvdir 3.16
  • ncftp 3.1.8
  • nl 2.0
  • od 2.0
  • pageant 0.60
  • paste 2.5
  • patch 2.0
  • pathchk 1.9.4
  • pclip 1.0
  • plink 0.60
  • pr 2.0
  • printenv 1.9.4
  • printf 1.9.4
  • pscp 0.60
  • psftp 0.60
  • putty 0.60
  • puttygen 0.57
  • pwd
  • recode 3.6
  • rm 3.16
  • rman 3.0.7
  • rmdir
  • rsync 2.6.3
  • scp
  • sdiff 2.7
  • sed 3.02
  • seq 1.13
  • sftp
  • sh
  • shar 4.1
  • sleep 1.9.4
  • sort 2.0
  • split 2.0
  • stego
  • su 1.9.4
  • sum 2.0
  • sync 3.16
  • tac 2.0
  • tail 2.0
  • tar 1.12
  • tee 1.9.4
  • test 1.9.4
  • touch 3.16
  • tr 2.0
  • type
  • uname 1.9.4
  • unexpand 2.0
  • uniq 2.0
  • unix2dos
  • unrar 3.4.3
  • unshar 4.1
  • unzip 2.3
  • uudecode 4.1
  • vim 6.3
  • wc 2.0
  • wget 1.8.1
  • whereis
  • which 2.4
  • whoami 1.9.4
  • xargs 4.1
  • yes 1.9.4
  • zcat 1.2.4
  • zip 3.0

*nix 命令行使用指南:



apropos whatis

Show commands pertinent to string. See also threadsafe

man -t ascii | ps2pdf - > ascii.pdf

make a pdf of a manual page


which command

Show full path name of command


time command

See how long a command takes

time cat

Start stopwatch. Ctrl-d to stop. See also sw

dir navigation

cd -

Go to previous directory


Go to $HOME directory


(cd dir && command)

Go to dir, execute command and return to current dir

pushd .

Put current dir on stack so you can popd back to it

file searching

alias l='ls -l --color=auto'

quick dir listing

ls -lrt

List files by date. See also newest and find_mm_yyyy

ls /usr/bin | pr -T9 -W$COLUMNS

Print in 9 columns to width of terminal


find -name '*.[ch]' | xargs grep -E 'expr'

Search 'expr' in this dir and below. See also findrepo


find -type f -print0 | xargs -r0 grep -F 'example'

Search all regular files for 'example' in this dir and below


find -maxdepth 1 -type f | xargs grep -F 'example'

Search all regular files for 'example' in this dir


find -maxdepth 1 -type d | while read dir; do echo $dir; echo cmd2; done

Process each item with multiple commands (in while loop)

find -type f ! -perm -444

Find files not readable by all (useful for web site)

find -type d ! -perm -111

Find dirs not accessible by all (useful for web site)

locate -r 'file[^/]*\.txt'

Search cached index for names. This re is like glob *file*.txt

look reference

Quickly search (sorted) dictionary for prefix

grep --color reference /usr/share/dict/words

Highlight occurances of regular expression in dictionary

archives and compression


gpg -c file

Encrypt file


gpg file.gpg

Decrypt file


tar -c dir/ | bzip2 > dir.tar.bz2

Make compressed archive of dir/


bzip2 -dc dir.tar.bz2 | tar -x

Extract archive (use gzip instead of bzip2 for tar.gz files)


tar -c dir/ | gzip | gpg -c | ssh user@remote 'dd of=dir.tar.gz.gpg'

Make encrypted archive of dir/ on remote machine


find dir/ -name '*.txt' | tar -c --files-from=- | bzip2 > dir_txt.tar.bz2

Make archive of subset of dir/ and below


find dir/ -name '*.txt' | xargs cp -a --target-directory=dir_txt/ --parents

Make copy of subset of dir/ and below


( tar -c /dir/to/copy ) | ( cd /where/to/ && tar -x -p )

Copy (with permissions) copy/ dir to /where/to/ dir


( cd /dir/to/copy && tar -c . ) | ( cd /where/to/ && tar -x -p )

Copy (with permissions) contents of copy/ dir to /where/to/


( tar -c /dir/to/copy ) | ssh -C user@remote 'cd /where/to/ && tar -x -p'

Copy (with permissions) copy/ dir to remote:/where/to/ dir


dd bs=1M if=/dev/sda | gzip | ssh user@remote 'dd of=sda.gz'

Backup harddisk to remote machine

rsync (Network efficient file copier: Use the --dry-run option for testing)


rsync -P rsync:// file

Only get diffs. Do multiple times for troublesome downloads


rsync --bwlimit=1000 fromfile tofile

Locally copy with rate limit. It's like nice for I/O


rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~/public_html/'~/public_html'

Mirror web site (using compression and encryption)


rsync -auz -e ssh remote:/dir/ . && rsync -auz -e ssh . remote:/dir/

Synchronize current directory with remote one

ssh (Secure SHell)


ssh $USER@$HOST command

Run command on $HOST as $USER (default command=shell)

ssh -f -Y $USER@$HOSTNAME xeyes

Run GUI command on $HOSTNAME as $USER


scp -p -r $USER@$HOST: file dir/

Copy with permissions to $USER's home directory on $HOST


scp -c arcfour $USER@$LANHOST: bigfile

Use faster crypto for local LAN. This might saturate GigE


ssh -g -L 8080:localhost:80 root@$HOST

Forward connections to $HOSTNAME:8080 out to $HOST:80


ssh -R 1434:imap:143 root@$HOST

Forward connections from $HOST:1434 in to imap:143


ssh-copy-id $USER@$HOST

Install public key for $USER@$HOST for password-less log in

wget (multi purpose download tool)

(cd dir/ && wget -nd -pHEKk

Store local browsable version of a page to the current dir


wget -c

Continue downloading a partially downloaded file


wget -r -nd -np -l1 -A '*.jpg'

Download a set of files to the current directory


wget ftp://remote/file[1-9].iso/

FTP supports globbing directly

wget -q -O- | grep 'a href' | head

Process output directly


echo 'wget url' | at 01:00

Download url at 1AM to current dir


wget --limit-rate=20k url

Do a low priority download (limit to 20KB/s in this case)


wget -nv --spider --force-html -i bookmarks.html

Check links in a file


wget --mirror

Efficiently update a local copy of a site (handy from cron)

networking (Note ifconfig, route, mii-tool, nslookup commands are obsolete)


ethtool eth0

Show status of ethernet interface eth0


ethtool --change eth0 autoneg off speed 100 duplex full

Manually set ethernet interface speed


iwconfig eth1

Show status of wireless interface eth1


iwconfig eth1 rate 1Mb/s fixed

Manually set wireless interface speed

iwlist scan

List wireless networks in range

ip link show

List network interfaces


ip link set dev eth0 name wan

Rename interface eth0 to wan


ip link set dev eth0 up

Bring interface eth0 up (or down)

ip addr show

List addresses for interfaces


ip addr add brd + dev eth0

Add (or del) ip and mask (

ip route show

List routing table


ip route add default via

Set default gateway to


Lookup DNS ip address for name or vice versa

hostname -i

Lookup local ip address (equivalent to host `hostname`)


Lookup whois info for hostname or ip address

netstat -tupl

List internet services on a system

netstat -tup

List active connections to/from system

windows networking (Note samba is the package that provides all this windows specific networking support)


Find windows machines. See also findsmb


nmblookup -A

Find the windows (netbios) name associated with ip address


smbclient -L windows_box

List shares on windows machine or samba server


mount -t smbfs -o fmask=666,guest //windows_box/share /mnt/share

Mount a windows share


echo 'message' | smbclient -M windows_box

Send popup to windows machine (off by default in XP sp2)

text manipulation (Note sed uses stdin and stdout. Newer versions support inplace editing with the -i option)


sed 's/string1/string2/g'

Replace string1 with string2


sed 's/\(.*\)1/\12/g'

Modify anystring1 to anystring2


sed '/ *#/d; /^ *$/d'

Remove comments and blank lines


sed ':a; /\\$/N; s/\\\n//; ta'

Concatenate lines with trailing \


sed 's/[ \t]*$//'

Remove trailing spaces from lines


sed 's/\([`"$\]\)/\\\1/g'

Escape shell metacharacters active within double quotes

seq 10 | sed "s/^/      /; s/ *\(.\{7,\}\)/\1/"

Right align numbers


sed -n '1000{p;q}'

Print 1000th line


sed -n '10,20p;20q'

Print lines 10 to 20


sed -n 's/.*<title>\(.*\)<\/title>.*/\1/ip;T;q'

Extract title from HTML web page


sed -i 42d ~/.ssh/known_hosts

Delete a particular line


sort -t. -k1,1n -k2,2n -k3,3n -k4,4n

Sort IPV4 ip addresses

echo 'Test' | tr '[:lower:]' '[:upper:]'

Case conversion

tr -dc '[:print:]' < /dev/urandom

Filter non printable characters

tr -s '[:blank:]' '\t' </proc/diskstats | cut -f4

cut fields separated by blanks

history | wc -l

Count lines

set operations (Note you can export LANG=C for speed. Also these assume no duplicate lines within a file)


sort file1 file2 | uniq

Union of unsorted files


sort file1 file2 | uniq -d

Intersection of unsorted files


sort file1 file1 file2 | uniq -u

Difference of unsorted files


sort file1 file2 | uniq -u

Symmetric Difference of unsorted files


join -t'\0' -a1 -a2 file1 file2

Union of sorted files


join -t'\0' file1 file2

Intersection of sorted files


join -t'\0' -v2 file1 file2

Difference of sorted files


join -t'\0' -v1 -v2 file1 file2

Symmetric Difference of sorted files


echo '(1 + sqrt(5))/2' | bc -l

Quick math (Calculate φ). See also bc

seq -f '4/%g' 1 2 99999 | paste -sd-+ | bc -l

Calculate π the unix way

echo 'pad=20; min=64; (100*10^6)/((pad+min)*8)' | bc

More complex (int) e.g. This shows max FastE packet rate

echo 'pad=20; min=64; print (100E6)/((pad+min)*8)' | python

Python handles scientific notation

echo 'pad=20; plot [64:1518] (100*10**6)/((pad+x)*8)' | gnuplot -persist

Plot FastE packet rate vs packet size

echo 'obase=16; ibase=10; 64206' | bc

Base conversion (decimal to hexadecimal)

echo $((0x2dec))

Base conversion (hex to dec) ((shell arithmetic expansion))

units -t '100m/9.58s' 'miles/hour'

Unit conversion (metric to imperial)

units -t '500GB' 'GiB'

Unit conversion (SI to IEC prefixes)

units -t '1 googol'

Definition lookup

seq 100 | (tr '\n' +; echo 0) | bc

Add a column of numbers. See also add and funcpy


cal -3

Display a calendar

cal 9 1752

Display a calendar for a particular month year

date -d fri

What date is it this friday. See also day

[ $(date -d '12:00 +1 day' +%d) = '01' ] || exit

exit a script unless it's the last day of the month

date --date='25 Dec' +%A

What day does xmas fall on, this year

date --date='@2147483647'

Convert seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01 UTC) to date

TZ='America/Los_Angeles' date

What time is it on west coast of US (use tzselect to find TZ)

date --date='TZ="America/Los_Angeles" 09:00 next Fri'

What's the local time for 9AM next Friday on west coast US


printf "%'d\n" 1234

Print number with thousands grouping appropriate to locale

BLOCK_SIZE=\'1 ls -l

Use locale thousands grouping in ls. See also l

echo "I live in `locale territory`"

Extract info from locale database

LANG=en_IE.utf8 locale int_prefix

Lookup locale info for specific country. See also ccodes

locale -kc $(locale | sed -n 's/\(LC_.\{4,\}\)=.*/\1/p') | less

List fields available in locale database

recode (Obsoletes iconv, dos2unix, unix2dos)

recode -l | less

Show available conversions (aliases on each line)


recode windows-1252.. file_to_change.txt

Windows "ansi" to local charset (auto does CRLF conversion)


recode utf-8/CRLF.. file_to_change.txt

Windows utf8 to local charset


recode iso-8859-15..utf8 file_to_change.txt

Latin9 (western europe) to utf8


recode ../b64 < file.txt > file.b64

Base64 encode


recode /qp.. < file.qp > file.txt

Quoted printable decode


recode ..HTML < file.txt > file.html

Text to HTML

recode -lf windows-1252 | grep euro

Lookup table of characters

echo -n 0x80 | recode latin-9/x1..dump

Show what a code represents in latin-9 charmap

echo -n 0x20AC | recode ucs-2/x2..latin-9/x

Show latin-9 encoding

echo -n 0x20AC | recode ucs-2/x2..utf-8/x

Show utf-8 encoding



gzip < /dev/cdrom > cdrom.iso.gz

Save copy of data cdrom


mkisofs -V LABEL -r dir | gzip > cdrom.iso.gz

Create cdrom image from contents of dir


mount -o loop cdrom.iso /mnt/dir

Mount the cdrom image at /mnt/dir (read only)


cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast

Clear a CDRW


gzip -dc cdrom.iso.gz | cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom -

Burn cdrom image (use dev=ATAPI -scanbus to confirm dev)


cdparanoia -B

Rip audio tracks from CD to wav files in current dir


cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom -audio -pad *.wav

Make audio CD from all wavs in current dir (see also cdrdao)


oggenc --tracknum='track' track.cdda.wav -o 'track.ogg'

Make ogg file from wav file

disk space (See also FSlint)

ls -lSr

Show files by size, biggest last

du -s * | sort -k1,1rn | head

Show top disk users in current dir. See also dutop

du -hs /home/* | sort -k1,1h

Sort paths by easy to interpret disk usage

df -h

Show free space on mounted filesystems

df -i

Show free inodes on mounted filesystems

fdisk -l

Show disks partitions sizes and types (run as root)

rpm -q -a --qf '%10{SIZE}\t%{NAME}\n' | sort -k1,1n

List all packages by installed size (Bytes) on rpm distros

dpkg-query -W -f='${Installed-Size;10}\t${Package}\n' | sort -k1,1n

List all packages by installed size (KBytes) on deb distros

dd bs=1 seek=2TB if=/dev/null of=ext3.test

Create a large test file (taking no space). See also truncate

> file

truncate data of file or create an empty file


tail -f /var/log/messages

Monitor messages in a log file

strace -c ls >/dev/null

Summarise/profile system calls made by command

strace -f -e open ls >/dev/null

List system calls made by command

strace -f -e trace=write -e write=1,2 ls >/dev/null

Monitor what's written to stdout and stderr

ltrace -f -e getenv ls >/dev/null

List library calls made by command

lsof -p $$

List paths that process id has open

lsof ~

List processes that have specified path open

tcpdump not port 22

Show network traffic except ssh. See also tcpdump_not_me

ps -e -o pid,args --forest

List processes in a hierarchy

ps -e -o pcpu,cpu,nice,state,cputime,args --sort pcpu | sed '/^ 0.0 /d'

List processes by % cpu usage

ps -e -orss=,args= | sort -b -k1,1n | pr -TW$COLUMNS

List processes by mem (KB) usage. See also

ps -C firefox-bin -L -o pid,tid,pcpu,state

List all threads for a particular process

ps -p 1,$$ -o etime=

List elapsed wall time for particular process IDs

last reboot

Show system reboot history

free -m

Show amount of (remaining) RAM (-m displays in MB)

watch -n.1 'cat /proc/interrupts'

Watch changeable data continuously

udevadm monitor

Monitor udev events to help configure rules

system information (see also sysinfo) ('#' means root access is required)

uname -a

Show kernel version and system architecture

head -n1 /etc/issue

Show name and version of distribution

cat /proc/partitions

Show all partitions registered on the system

grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo

Show RAM total seen by the system

grep "model name" /proc/cpuinfo

Show CPU(s) info

lspci -tv

Show PCI info

lsusb -tv

Show USB info

mount | column -t

List mounted filesystems on the system (and align output)

grep -F capacity: /proc/acpi/battery/BAT0/info

Show state of cells in laptop battery


dmidecode -q | less

Display SMBIOS/DMI information


smartctl -A /dev/sda | grep Power_On_Hours

How long has this disk (system) been powered on in total


hdparm -i /dev/sda

Show info about disk sda


hdparm -tT /dev/sda

Do a read speed test on disk sda


badblocks -s /dev/sda

Test for unreadable blocks on disk sda

interactive (see also linux keyboard shortcuts)


Line editor used by bash, python, bc, gnuplot, ...


Virtual terminals with detach capability, ...


Powerful file manager that can browse rpm, tar, ftp, ssh, ...


Interactive/scriptable graphing


Web browser

xdg-open .

open a file or url with the registered desktop application


posted on 2012-08-01 14:21 Haozes 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏



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