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good article about IEnumerator
http://www.microsoft.com/china/community/Column/11.mspx
NET Framework 类库
IEnumerator 接口

支持对非泛型集合的简单迭代。

命名空间:System.Collections
程序集:mscorlib(在 mscorlib.dll 中)

备注备注

IEnumerator 是所有非泛型枚举数的基接口。

有关此接口的泛形版本,请参见 IEnumerator

C# 语言的 foreach 语句(在 Visual Basic 中为 for each)隐藏了枚举数的复杂性。因此,建议使用 foreach,而不直接操作枚举数。

枚举数可用于读取集合中的数据,但不能用于修改基础集合。

最初,枚举数定位在集合中第一个元素前。Reset 方法还会将枚举数返回到此位置。在此位置,调用 Current 属性会引发异常。因此,在读取 Current 的值之前,必须调用 MoveNext 方法将枚举数提前到集合的第一个元素。

在调用 MoveNextReset 之前,Current 返回同一对象。MoveNextCurrent 设置为下一个元素。

如果 MoveNext 越过集合的末尾,则枚举数将被放置在此集合中最后一个元素的后面,而且 MoveNext 返回 false。当枚举数位于此位置时,对 MoveNext 的后续调用也返回 false。如果最后一次调用 MoveNext 返回 false,则调用 Current 会引发异常。若要再次将 Current 设置为集合的第一个元素,可以调用 Reset,然后再调用 MoveNext

只要集合保持不变,枚举数就保持有效。如果对集合进行了更改(如添加、修改或删除元素),则枚举数将失效且不可恢复,并且下一次对 MoveNextReset 的调用将引发 InvalidOperationException。如果在 MoveNextCurrent 之间修改集合,那么即使枚举数已经无效,Current 也将返回它所设置成的元素。

枚举数没有对集合的独占访问权;因此,枚举通过集合在本质上不是一个线程安全的过程。即使一个集合已进行同步,其他线程仍可以修改该集合,这将导致枚举数引发异常。若要在枚举过程中保证线程安全,可以在整个枚举过程中锁定集合,或者捕捉由于其他线程进行的更改而引发的异常。

示例示例

下面的代码示例演示如何实现自定义集合的 IEnumerableIEnumerator 接口。在此示例中,没有显式调用这些接口的成员,但实现了它们,以便支持使用 foreach(在 Visual Basic 中为 for each)循环访问该集合。

Visual Basic
Imports System
Imports System.Collections

Public Class Person

    Public Sub New(ByVal fName As String, ByVal lName As String)
        Me.firstName = fName
        Me.lastName = lName
    End Sub


    Public firstName As String
    Public lastName As String
End Class

Public Class People
    Implements IEnumerable

    Private _people() As Person

    Public Sub New(ByVal pArray() As Person)
        _people = New Person(pArray.Length - 1) {}

        Dim i As Integer
        For i = 0 To pArray.Length - 1
            _people(i) = pArray(i)
        Next i
    End Sub

    Public Function GetEnumerator() As IEnumerator _
      Implements IEnumerable.GetEnumerator

        Return New PeopleEnum(_people)
    End Function

End Class

Public Class PeopleEnum
    Implements IEnumerator

    Public _people() As Person

    ' Enumerators are positioned before the first element
    ' until the first MoveNext() call.
    Dim position As Integer = -1

    Public Sub New(ByVal list() As Person)
        _people = list
    End Sub

    Public Function MoveNext() As Boolean Implements IEnumerator.MoveNext
        position = position + 1
        Return (position < _people.Length)
    End Function

    Public Sub Reset() Implements IEnumerator.Reset
        position = -1
    End Sub

    Public ReadOnly Property Current() As Object Implements IEnumerator.Current
        Get
            Try
                Return _people(position)
            Catch ex As IndexOutOfRangeException
                Throw New InvalidOperationException()
            End Try
        End Get
    End Property
End Class

Class App
    Shared Sub Main()
        Dim peopleArray() As Person = { _
            New Person("John", "Smith"), _
            New Person("Jim", "Johnson"), _
            New Person("Sue", "Rabon")}

        Dim peopleList As New People(peopleArray)
        Dim p As Person
        For Each p In peopleList
            Console.WriteLine(p.firstName + " " + p.lastName)
        Next

    End Sub
End Class

' This code produces output similar to the following:
' 
' John Smith
' Jim Johnson
' Sue Rabon

using System;
using System.Collections;

public class Person
{
    public Person(string fName, string lName)
    {
        this.firstName = fName;
        this.lastName = lName;
    }

    public string firstName;
    public string lastName;
}

public class People : IEnumerable
{
    private Person[] _people;
    public People(Person[] pArray)
    {
        _people = new Person[pArray.Length];

        for (int i = 0; i < pArray.Length; i++)
        {
            _people[i] = pArray[i];
        }
    }

    public IEnumerator GetEnumerator()
    {
        return new PeopleEnum(_people);
    }
}

public class PeopleEnum : IEnumerator
{
    public Person[] _people;

    // Enumerators are positioned before the first element
    // until the first MoveNext() call.
    int position = -1;

    public PeopleEnum(Person[] list)
    {
        _people = list;
    }

    public bool MoveNext()
    {
        position++;
        return (position < _people.Length);
    }

    public void Reset()
    {
        position = -1;
    }

    public object Current
    {
        get
        {
            try
            {
                return _people[position];
            }
            catch (IndexOutOfRangeException)
            {
                throw new InvalidOperationException();
            }
        }
    }
}

class App
{
    static void Main()
    {
        Person[] peopleArray = new Person[3]
        {
            new Person("John", "Smith"),
            new Person("Jim", "Johnson"),
            new Person("Sue", "Rabon"),
        };

        People peopleList = new People(peopleArray);
        foreach (Person p in peopleList)
            Console.WriteLine(p.firstName + " " + p.lastName);

    }
}

/* This code produces output similar to the following:
 * 
 * John Smith
 * Jim Johnson
 * Sue Rabon
 * 
 */
posted on 2007-10-24 14:51 共同学习,共同进步 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏