详解W3C标准:html 4.01中的lang属性——实际上它是一个刮胡刀

在HTML和XHTML中的lang属性使用什么值呢?

是使用zh-CN、zh-Hans还是zh-Hans-CN?

是使用zh-CN还是zh-cn,是否区分大小写?

是使用yue-Hans还是zh-yue-Hans呢?

为什么浏览器中一直使用zh-cn?

这是一段HTML 4.01代码:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
<html lang="zh-CN">
<head>
    
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8">
    
<title>实际上它是一个刮胡刀</title>
</head>
<body>
<lang="zh-CN">它是一个刮胡刀
</p>
<lang="yue-Hans">佢系一个须刨嚟嘅
</p>
</body>
</html>


它是一个刮胡刀

佢系一个须刨嚟嘅

先看W3C HTML 4.01标准:

HTML 4.01 Specification(W3C Recommendation 24 December 1999) :http://www.w3.org/TR/html401/#toc 

第6章(Basic HTML data types)——第8节(Language codes):http://www.w3.org/TR/html401/types.html#h-6.8 

原文如下:

6.8 Language codes

The value of attributes whose type is a language code ( %LanguageCode in the DTD) refers to a language code as specified by [RFC1766], section 2. For information on specifying language codes in HTML, please consult the section on language codes. Whitespace is not allowed within the language-code.

Language codes are case-insensitive.

W3C的规定是:HTML 4.01中的lang的属性值使用RFC1766中的定义值。HTML 4.01的语言代码不区分大小写。

详细信息: http://www.w3.org/TR/html401/struct/dirlang.html#langcodes

 

 原文如下:

8.1.1 Language codes

The lang attribute's value is a language code that identifies a natural language spoken, written, or otherwise used for the communication of information among people. Computer languages are explicitly excluded from language codes.

[RFC1766] defines and explains the language codes that must be used in HTML documents.

Briefly, language codes consist of a primary code and a possibly empty series of subcodes:

 language-code = primary-code ( "-" subcode )*

Here are some sample language codes:

  • "en": English
  • "en-US": the U.S. version of English.
  • "en-cockney": the Cockney version of English.
  • "i-navajo": the Navajo language spoken by some Native Americans.
  • "x-klingon": The primary tag "x" indicates an experimental language tag

Two-letter primary codes are reserved for [ISO639] language abbreviations. Two-letter codes include fr (French), de (German), it (Italian), nl (Dutch), el (Greek), es (Spanish), pt (Portuguese), ar (Arabic), he (Hebrew), ru (Russian), zh (Chinese), ja (Japanese), hi (Hindi), ur (Urdu), and sa (Sanskrit).

Any two-letter subcode is understood to be a [ISO3166] country code.

即:

lang的属性值表示语言代码,定义了人们之间通过说话、书写或其他方式进行交流的语言。

RFC1766 定义了HTML中必须使用的语言代码 。

语言代码包括一个主代码和一系列子代码,主代码必须使用,子代码可以不使用。

格式为:主代码、主代码-子代码、主代码-子代码-子代码、……

例如:en表示英语,en-US表示美国英语。

2个字母的主代码按照ISO639的规定执行,包括fr (French), de (German), it (Italian), nl (Dutch), el (Greek), es (Spanish), pt (Portuguese), ar (Arabic), he (Hebrew), ru (Russian), zh (Chinese), ja (Japanese), hi (Hindi), ur (Urdu), and sa (Sanskrit)。

2个字母的子代码与ISO3166国家代码一致。

 

下面先来看 RFC1766:http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1766.txt

RFC1766由互联网工程工作小组(The Internet Engineering Task Force ,IETF)发行,网站http://www.ietf.org/

RFC1766的意思是:

主语言标签:

2个字母的主语言标签与ISO标准639一致("Code for the representation of names of languages" [ISO 639]),不允许使用标准以外的其他值。

第一个子语言标签:

2个字母的子语言标签与ISO 3166 alpha-2(2个字母的代码表)一致。

3到8个字母的子语言标签按照IANA的登记执行,按照第5章的说明进行使用。

 NOTE: The ISO 639/ISO 3166 convention is that language names are
written in lower case, while country codes are written in upper case.
This convention is recommended, but not enforced; the tags are case
insensitive.

注意:ISO 639和ISO 3166约定语言名称使用小写,国家代码使用大写。这是一个推荐使用的惯例,并不是强制要求;语言代码是不区分大小写的。

再来看ISO639:

[ISO639]
"Codes for the representation of names of languages", ISO 639:1988. For more information, consult http://www.iso.ch/cate/d4766.html. Refer also to http://www.oasis-open.org/cover/iso639a.html.

按照维基百科(http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-cn/ISO_639)的资料: ISO 639 是数个由国际标准化组织(ISO)为各语言所订定的语言代码。

此标准还在持续更新。

1988年的ISO 639标准:http://ftp.ics.uci.edu/pub/ietf/http/related/iso639.txt

Technical contents of ISO 639:1988 (E/F)
"Code for the representation of names of languages".
Typed by Keld.Simonsen@dkuug.dk 1990-11-30 <ftp://dkuug.dk/i18n/ISO_639>
Minor corrections, 1992-09-08 by Keld Simonsen
Sundanese corrected, 1992-11-11 by Keld Simonsen
Telugu corrected, 1995-08-24 by Keld Simonsen
Hebrew, Indonesian, Yiddish corrected 1995-10-10 by Michael Everson
Inuktitut, Uighur, Zhuang added 1995-10-10 by Michael Everson
Sinhalese corrected, 1995-10-10 by Michael Everson
Faeroese corrected to Faroese, 1995-11-18 by Keld Simonsen
Sangro corrected to Sangho, 1996-07-28 by Keld Simonsen
Two-letter lower-case symbols are used.
The Registration Authority for ISO 639 is Infoterm, Osterreichisches
Normungsinstitut (ON), Postfach 130, A-1021 Vienna, Austria.

aa Afar
ab Abkhazian
af Afrikaans
am Amharic
ar Arabic
as Assamese
ay Aymara
az Azerbaijani

ba Bashkir
be Byelorussian
bg Bulgarian
bh Bihari
bi Bislama
bn Bengali; Bangla
bo Tibetan
br Breton

ca Catalan
co Corsican
cs Czech
cy Welsh
da Danish
de German
dz Bhutani
el Greek
en English
eo Esperanto
es Spanish
et Estonian
eu Basque
fa Persian
fi Finnish
fj Fiji
fo Faroese
fr French
fy Frisian
ga Irish
gd Scots Gaelic
gl Galician
gn Guarani
gu Gujarati
ha Hausa
he Hebrew (formerly iw)
hi Hindi
hr Croatian
hu Hungarian
hy Armenian
ia Interlingua
id Indonesian (formerly in)
ie Interlingue
ik Inupiak
is Icelandic
it Italian
iu Inuktitut
ja Japanese
jw Javanese

ka Georgian
kk Kazakh
kl Greenlandic
km Cambodian
kn Kannada
ko Korean
ks Kashmiri
ku Kurdish
ky Kirghiz
la Latin
ln Lingala
lo Laothian
lt Lithuanian
lv Latvian, Lettish
mg Malagasy
mi Maori
mk Macedonian
ml Malayalam
mn Mongolian
mo Moldavian
mr Marathi
ms Malay
mt Maltese
my Burmese
na Nauru
ne Nepali
nl Dutch
no Norwegian
oc Occitan
om (Afan) Oromo
or Oriya
pa Punjabi
pl Polish
ps Pashto, Pushto
pt Portuguese
qu Quechua
rm Rhaeto-Romance
rn Kirundi
ro Romanian
ru Russian
rw Kinyarwanda
sa Sanskrit
sd Sindhi
sg Sangho
sh Serbo-Croatian
si Sinhalese
sk Slovak
sl Slovenian
sm Samoan
sn Shona
so Somali
sq Albanian
sr Serbian
ss Siswati
st Sesotho
su Sundanese
sv Swedish
sw Swahili
ta Tamil
te Telugu
tg Tajik
th Thai
ti Tigrinya
tk Turkmen
tl Tagalog
tn Setswana
to Tonga
tr Turkish
ts Tsonga
tt Tatar
tw Twi
ug Uighur
uk Ukrainian
ur Urdu
uz Uzbek
vi Vietnamese
vo Volapuk
wo Wolof
xh Xhosa
yi Yiddish (formerly ji)
yo Yoruba
za Zhuang
zh Chinese
zu Zulu

到这里,主代码primary-code即语种的名称的标准找到了。

 

下面开始找子代码subcode。

[ISO3166]
"Codes for the representation of names of countries", ISO 3166:1993.

按照维基百科的资料(http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-cn/ISO_3166) :

国际标准化组织的ISO 3166国际标准针对国家和地区编代码,有三部份:

    * ISO 3166-1有国际标准化组织(ISO)的标准国家代码。有二位字母代码、三位字母代码、以及三位数字代码。1974年首次出版。
    * ISO 3166-2定义国家或地区的主要行政区代码。
    * ISO 3166-3定义被取代的ISO 3166-1代码的代码。1998年首次出版。

开始看ISO 3166 alpha-2(2个字母的代码表):

当时HTML 4.01采用的是ISO 3166:1993,内容如下:http://xml.coverpages.org/country3166.html

Country Code List: ISO 3166-1993 (E)

This international standard provides a two-letter alphabetic code for representing the names of countries, dependencies, and other areas of special geopolitical interest. The source of this code set is the "Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries (ISO 3166-1993 (E))." Note: 2005-04 correction, Nambia --> Namibia. It is available from:

American National Standards Institute, Inc.
11 West 42nd Street, 13th floor
New York, New York 10036
CodeDefinition and Explanation
AD Andorra
AE United Arab Emirates
AF Afghanistan
AG Antigua & Barbuda
AI Anguilla
AL Albania
AM Armenia
AN Netherlands Antilles
AO Angola
AQ Antarctica
AR Argentina
AS American Samoa
AT Austria
AU Australia
AW Aruba
AZ Azerbaijan
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina
BB Barbados
BD Bangladesh
BE Belgium
BF Burkina Faso
BG Bulgaria
BH Bahrain
BI Burundi
BJ Benin
BM Bermuda
BN Brunei Darussalam
BO Bolivia
BR Brazil
BS Bahama
BT Bhutan
BU Burma (no longer exists)
BV Bouvet Island
BW Botswana
BY Belarus
BZ Belize
CA Canada
CC Cocos (Keeling) Islands
CF Central African Republic
CG Congo
CH Switzerland
CI Côte D'ivoire (Ivory Coast)
CK Cook Iislands
CL Chile
CM Cameroon
CN China
CO Colombia
CR Costa Rica
CS Czechoslovakia (no longer exists)
CU Cuba
CV Cape Verde
CX Christmas Island
CY Cyprus
CZ Czech Republic
DD German Democratic Republic (no longer exists)
DE Germany
DJ Djibouti
DK Denmark
DM Dominica
DO Dominican Republic
DZ Algeria
EC Ecuador
EE Estonia
EG Egypt
EH Western Sahara
ER Eritrea
ES Spain
ET Ethiopia
FI Finland
FJ Fiji
FK Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
FM Micronesia
FO Faroe Islands
FR France
FX France, Metropolitan
GA Gabon
GB United Kingdom (Great Britain)
GD Grenada
GE Georgia
GF French Guiana
GH Ghana
GI Gibraltar
GL Greenland
GM Gambia
GN Guinea
GP Guadeloupe
GQ Equatorial Guinea
GR Greece
GS South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
GT Guatemala
GU Guam
GW Guinea-Bissau
GY Guyana
HK Hong Kong
HM Heard & McDonald Islands
HN Honduras
HR Croatia
HT Haiti
HU Hungary
ID Indonesia
IE Ireland
IL Israel
IN India
IO British Indian Ocean Territory
IQ Iraq
IR Islamic Republic of Iran
IS Iceland
IT Italy
JM Jamaica
JO Jordan
JP Japan
KE Kenya
KG Kyrgyzstan
KH Cambodia
KI Kiribati
KM Comoros
KN St. Kitts and Nevis
KP Korea, Democratic People's Republic of
KR Korea, Republic of
KW Kuwait
KY Cayman Islands
KZ Kazakhstan
LA Lao People's Democratic Republic
LB Lebanon
LC Saint Lucia
LI Liechtenstein
LK Sri Lanka
LR Liberia
LS Lesotho
LT Lithuania
LU Luxembourg
LV Latvia
LY Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
MA Morocco
MC Monaco
MD Moldova, Republic of
MG Madagascar
MH Marshall Islands
ML Mali
MN Mongolia
MM Myanmar
MO Macau
MP Northern Mariana Islands
MQ Martinique
MR Mauritania
MS Monserrat
MT Malta
MU Mauritius
MV Maldives
MW Malawi
MX Mexico
MY Malaysia
MZ Mozambique
NA Namibia
NC New Caledonia
NE Niger
NF Norfolk Island
NG Nigeria
NI Nicaragua
NL Netherlands
NO Norway
NP Nepal
NR Nauru
NT Neutral Zone (no longer exists)
NU Niue
NZ New Zealand
OM Oman
PA Panama
PE Peru
PF French Polynesia
PG Papua New Guinea
PH Philippines
PK Pakistan
PL Poland
PM St. Pierre & Miquelon
PN Pitcairn
PR Puerto Rico
PT Portugal
PW Palau
PY Paraguay
QA Qatar
RE Réunion
RO Romania
RU Russian Federation
RW Rwanda
SA Saudi Arabia
SB Solomon Islands
SC Seychelles
SD Sudan
SE Sweden
SG Singapore
SH St. Helena
SI Slovenia
SJ Svalbard & Jan Mayen Islands
SK Slovakia
SL Sierra Leone
SM San Marino
SN Senegal
SO Somalia
SR Suriname
ST Sao Tome & Principe
SU Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (no longer exists)
SV El Salvador
SY Syrian Arab Republic
SZ Swaziland
TC Turks & Caicos Islands
TD Chad
TF French Southern Territories
TG Togo
TH Thailand
TJ Tajikistan
TK Tokelau
TM Turkmenistan
TN Tunisia
TO Tonga
TP East Timor
TR Turkey
TT Trinidad & Tobago
TV Tuvalu
TW Taiwan, Province of China
TZ Tanzania, United Republic of
UA Ukraine
UG Uganda
UM United States Minor Outlying Islands
US United States of America
UY Uruguay
UZ Uzbekistan
VA Vatican City State (Holy See)
VC St. Vincent & the Grenadines
VE Venezuela
VG British Virgin Islands
VI United States Virgin Islands
VN Viet Nam
VU Vanuatu
WF Wallis & Futuna Islands
WS Samoa
YD Democratic Yemen (no longer exists)
YE Yemen
YT Mayotte
YU Yugoslavia
ZA South Africa
ZM Zambia
ZR Zaire
ZW Zimbabwe
ZZ Unknown or unspecified country

根据ISO提供的信息(http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=22748),ISO 3166:1993已被ISO 3166-1取代。

http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-cn/ISO_3166-1可以看到ISO 3166-1的国家和地区代码表,其中CN表示China,HK表示香港。

到这里,2个字母的子代码也清楚了。

下面开始“3到8个字母的子语言标签按照IANA的登记执行,按照第5章的说明进行使用。”

第5章的原文如下:

5. IANA registration procedure for language tags
Any language tag must start with an existing tag, and extend it.
This registration form should be used by anyone who wants to use a
language tag not defined by ISO or IANA.
Alvestrand [Page 7]
RFC 1766 Language Tag March 1995
----------------------------------------------------------------------
LANGUAGE TAG REGISTRATION FORM
Name of requester :
E-mail address of requester:
Tag to be registered :
English name of language :
Native name of language (transcribed into ASCII):
Reference to published description of the language (book or article):
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The language form must be sent to <ietf-types@uninett.no> for a 2-
week review period before submitting it to IANA. (This is an open
list. Requests to be added should be sent to <ietf-types-
request@uninett.no>.)
When the two week period has passed, the language tag reviewer, who
is appointed by the IETF Applications Area Director, either forwards
the request to IANA@ISI.EDU, or rejects it because of significant
objections raised on the list.
Decisions made by the reviewer may be appealed to the IESG.
All registered forms are available online in the directory
ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/languages/

 根据第5章的内容,并没有说明3到8个字母的代码表在哪里?

查得IANA(互联网地址指派机构,Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) ,网站是:http://www.iana.org/

根据维基百科(http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/IANA)的资料:

IANA是英文Internet Assigned Numbers Authority的缩写,即Internet号码分配局,是互联网地址指派机构,是在国际互联网中使用的IP地址、域名和许多其它参数的管理机构。IP地址、自治系统成员以及许多顶级和二级域名分配的日常职责由国际互联网注册中心(IR)和地区注册中心承担。

查得iana language subtag,在这里:http://www.iana.org/assignments/language-subtag-registry

引用部分内容如下:

 
%%
Type: redundant
Tag: zh-Hans
Description: simplified Chinese
Added: 2003-05-30
%%
Type: redundant
Tag: zh-Hans-CN
Description: PRC Mainland Chinese in simplified script
Added: 2005-04-13
%%
Type: redundant
Tag: zh-Hans-HK
Description: Hong Kong Chinese in simplified script
Added: 2005-04-11

 标签zh-Hans是在2003-05-30添加的,表示“简体中文”(西方说法)或者称为“规范汉字”(东方说法)。

标签zh-Hans-CN是在2005-04-13添加的,表示“以简体中文格式书写的PRC Mainland用语” 。

标签zh-Hans-HK表示“以简体中文格式书写的香港地区用语”。

到这里,3到8个字母的子代码也明白。

 

结论是:

按照ISO国际标准,使用zh-CN、zh-HK。按惯例是语言种类小写(如zh) ,国家和地区代码大写(如CN),不作强制要求。

ISO是国际标准,跟着ISO走,你不会错的。各个浏览器也都是这么干的。

IANA的语言代码更新快,但是影响力不如ISO,各个浏览器都不采用。按照W3C的HTML 4.01规范,可以使用IANA的语言代码。所以如果你认可IANA的新代码,用吧,也是符合W3C的,zh-Hans也是对的。


下面请看各个浏览器支持的语言代码截图:

 

 

 

到这里,HTML 4.01中的lang属性值问题得以解决。

XHTML 1.0中的语言应该使用什么属性值,下次再说。虽然XHTML2已经停止了,不过HTML5的lang可能是在XHTML的基础上再扩充。

 

 

下面是相关的问题,有空再说。

 

%%
Type: redundant
Tag: zh-yue
Description: Cantonese
Added: 1999-12-18
Deprecated: 2009-07-29
Preferred-Value: yue

IANA极不赞成使用zh-yue,优先使用yue。

但是ISO 639-2和ISO 639-3都没有把yue作为单独的语言,看来浏览器也不会支持了。

http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-cn/ISO_639-2%E4%BB%A3%E7%A0%81%E8%A1%A8

http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-cn/ISO_639-3 

关于“粤语是汉语族下属的一门语言”和“粤语是汉语的一种方言”的介绍,请看:http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-cn/%E6%B1%89%E8%AF%AD

%%
Type: language
Subtag: cmn
Description: Mandarin Chinese
Added: 2009-07-29
Macrolanguage: zh
%%
Type: grandfathered
Tag: zh-guoyu
Description: Mandarin or Standard Chinese
Added: 1999-12-18
Deprecated: 2005-07-15
Preferred-Value: cmn

ISO 639规定的是语言代码,那么其中的zh应表示汉语,汉语又分为“发音”与“文字”。关于“发音”与“文字”的问题,有空再谈。

IANA的记录表明:zh-guoyu表示“现代标准汉语”,但已不赞成使用,优先使用cmn表示“现代标准汉语”。

联合国的官方语言有6种:阿拉伯语 · 汉语 · 英语 · 法语 · 俄语 · 西班牙语。

现代标准汉语包括:普通话、国语、华语。详细内容请看:http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-cn/%E7%8F%BE%E4%BB%A3%E6%A8%99%E6%BA%96%E6%BC%A2%E8%AA%9E

posted @ 2010-01-22 16:56 sink_cup 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏
Creative Commons License

本站原创作品采用知识共享署名 3.0许可协议进行许可。