FPGA4U FPGA SDRAM Controller

-- https://fpga4u.epfl.ch/wiki/FPGA4U_Description
-- The SDRAM is an ISSI IS42S32800B. With 32 bits data bus, validated by SDRAM_DQM<3..0> signals, 
-- one for each Byte of data bus SDRAM_DQ<31..0>. 
-- This memory is a synchronous SDRAM, validating address and control signals with the rising edge of SDRAM_CLK, 
-- while SDRAM_CKE activated ('1'). The organisation is 4 banks selected by SDRAM_BA<1..0>. 
-- Each bank as 2^12 Row and 2^9 Column selected by SDRAM_AD<11.0>, with 32 bits words 
-- (SDRAM_DQ<31..0> (2^2 * 2^12 * 2^9 = 4 * 2M x 32 = 8Mx32 = 32MBytes).
-- In SOPC Builder, with the SDRAM Controller, select:
-- 4 Banks
-- 12 Rows addresses lines
-- 9 Columns addresses lines

library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
use ieee.numeric_std.all;

entity fpga4u_sdram_controller is
    port(
        --Avalon slave interface (pipelined, variable latency)
        signal clk, reset : in std_logic;
        signal as_address : in std_logic_vector(22 downto 0);
        signal as_read, as_write : in std_logic;
        signal as_byteenable : in std_logic_vector(3 downto 0);
        signal as_readdata : out std_logic_vector(31 downto 0);
        signal as_writedata : in std_logic_vector(31 downto 0);
        signal as_waitrequest : out std_logic;
        signal as_readdatavalid : out std_logic;

        --SDRAM interface to FPGA4U SDRAM
        signal ram_addr : out std_logic_vector(11 downto 0);
        signal ram_ba : out std_logic_vector(1 downto 0);
        signal ram_cas_n : out std_logic;
        signal ram_cke : out std_logic;
        signal ram_cs_n : out std_logic;
        signal ram_dq : inout std_logic_vector(31 downto 0);
        signal ram_dqm : out std_logic_vector(3 downto 0);
        signal ram_ras_n : out std_logic;
        signal ram_we_n : out std_logic
    );
end entity;

architecture arch of fpga4u_sdram_controller is
    --Initialisation signals
    type init_state_t is (init_reset, init_pre, init_wait_pre, init_ref, init_wait_ref, init_mode, init_wait_mode, init_done);
    signal init_state : init_state_t := init_reset;
    signal init_wait_counter : unsigned(15 downto 0);
    signal init_ref_counter : unsigned(3 downto 0);

    --Main state machine
    type state_t is (idle, ref, wait_ref, act, wait_act, read, spin_read, write, spin_write, precharge_all, wait_precharge);
    signal state : state_t := idle;
    signal ref_counter : unsigned(10 downto 0);
    signal ref_req : std_logic;
    signal wait_counter : unsigned(2 downto 0);

    --Active transaction signals
    signal int_address : std_logic_vector(22 downto 0);
    signal int_readdata : std_logic_vector(31 downto 0);
    signal int_writedata : std_logic_vector(31 downto 0);
    signal int_byteenable : std_logic_vector(3 downto 0);
    signal int_writeop : std_logic;

    --open bank and row
    signal open_bank : std_logic_vector(1 downto 0);
    signal open_row : std_logic_vector(11 downto 0);

    --readdata ready pipeline
    signal readdata_ready : std_logic_vector(4 downto 0);

    signal ram_cmd : std_logic_vector(3 downto 0);
begin
    --State machine to handle SDRAM initialization
    INITSTATE : process(clk, reset)
    begin
        if reset = '1' then
            init_state <= init_reset;
            --power up delay
            init_wait_counter <= to_unsigned(24000,init_wait_counter'length);
            --number refresh cycles before mode register write
            init_ref_counter <= to_unsigned(2,init_ref_counter'length);
        elsif rising_edge(clk) then
            --count down when not 0
            if init_wait_counter /= 0 then
                init_wait_counter <= init_wait_counter - 1;
            end if;
            case init_state is
                when init_reset =>
                    if init_wait_counter = 0 then
                        init_state <= init_pre;
                    end if;
                --do a precharge
                when init_pre =>
                    init_wait_counter <= to_unsigned(3,init_wait_counter'length);
                    init_state <= init_wait_pre;
                when init_wait_pre =>
                    if init_wait_counter = 0 then
                        init_state <= init_ref;
                    end if;
                --do a refresh
                when init_ref =>
                    init_wait_counter <= to_unsigned(8,init_wait_counter'length);
                    init_ref_counter <= init_ref_counter - 1;
                    init_state <= init_wait_ref;
                when init_wait_ref =>
                    if init_wait_counter = 0 then
                        if init_ref_counter = 0 then
                            init_state <= init_mode;
                        else
                            init_state <= init_ref;
                        end if;
                    end if;
                --set the mode register
                when init_mode =>
                    init_wait_counter <= to_unsigned(2,init_wait_counter'length);
                    init_state <= init_wait_mode;
                when init_wait_mode =>
                    if init_wait_counter = 0 then
                        init_state <= init_done;
                    end if;
                when others =>
                    null;
            end case;
        end if;
    end process;

    --Asynchronous waitrequest to allow one transfer per cycle (critical path)
    as_waitrequest <= '0' when (state = idle and ref_req = '0' and (as_read = '1' or as_write = '1'))
        or ((state = read or state = spin_read) and ref_req = '0' and as_read = '1' and as_address(22 downto 11) = open_row and as_address(10 downto 9) = open_bank)
        or ((state = write or state = spin_write) and ref_req = '0' and as_write = '1' and as_address(22 downto 11) = open_row and as_address(10 downto 9) = open_bank)
        else '1';

    --Main state machine
    make_state : process(clk, reset)
    begin
        if reset = '1' then
            state <= idle;
            ref_counter <= (others=>'0');
            ref_req <= '1'; --begin with a refresh
            wait_counter <= (others=>'0');
            readdata_ready <= (others=>'0');
        elsif rising_edge(clk) then
            --counters for delays and refresh generation
            if wait_counter /= 0 then
                wait_counter <= wait_counter - 1;
            end if;
            if ref_counter /= 0 then
                ref_counter <= ref_counter - 1;
            else
                ref_req <= '1';
                ref_counter <= to_unsigned(1800,ref_counter'length);
            end if;
            --main state machine runs when the initialization is done
            if init_state = init_done then
                case state is
                    when idle =>
                        if ref_req = '1' then --go do a refresh
                            ref_req <= '0';
                            state <= ref;
                        elsif as_write = '1' or as_read = '1' then --accept the request and go to open the row
                            int_address <= as_address;
                            int_writedata <= as_writedata;
                            int_byteenable <= as_byteenable;
                            int_writeop <= as_write;
                            state <= act;
                        end if;
                    when ref =>
                        wait_counter <= to_unsigned(5,wait_counter'length);
                        state <= wait_ref;
                    when wait_ref =>
                        if wait_counter = 0 then
                            state <= idle;
                        end if;
                    when act => --save the open bank and row
                        open_bank <= int_address(10 downto 9);
                        open_row <= int_address(22 downto 11);
                        wait_counter <= to_unsigned(1,wait_counter'length);
                        state <= wait_act;
                    when wait_act =>
                        if wait_counter = 0 then
                            if int_writeop = '0' then
                                state <= read;
                            else
                                state <= write;
                            end if;
                        end if;
                    when read => --issue a read command, feed a one in the readdata_ready pipeline, when it exits data is ready for the master
                        as_readdata <= int_readdata;
                        as_readdatavalid <= readdata_ready(4);
                        readdata_ready <= readdata_ready(3 downto 0)&'1';
                        if ref_req = '0' and as_read = '1' and as_address(22 downto 11) = open_row and as_address(10 downto 9) = open_bank then
                            int_address <= as_address;
                            state <= read;
                        else
                            state <= spin_read;
                        end if;
                    when spin_read => --wait for reads to complete and eventually issue more compatible reads
                        as_readdata <= int_readdata;
                        as_readdatavalid <= readdata_ready(4);
                        readdata_ready <= readdata_ready(3 downto 0)&'0';
                        if readdata_ready = "00000" and (ref_req = '1' or as_write = '1') then
                            state <= precharge_all;
                        elsif ref_req = '0' and as_read = '1' and as_address(22 downto 11) = open_row and as_address(10 downto 9) = open_bank then
                            int_address <= as_address;
                            state <= read;
                        elsif readdata_ready = "00000" and as_read = '1' then
                            state <= precharge_all;
                        end if;
                    when write => --the same as read, except there is no pipeline as data is presented to the SDRAM on the same cycle as the command
                        wait_counter <= to_unsigned(1,wait_counter'length);
                        if ref_req = '0' and as_write = '1' and as_address(22 downto 11) = open_row and as_address(10 downto 9) = open_bank then
                            int_address <= as_address;
                            int_writedata <= as_writedata;
                            int_byteenable <= as_byteenable;
                            state <= write;
                        else
                            state <= spin_write;
                        end if;
                    when spin_write => --same as for read
                        if wait_counter = 0 and (ref_req = '1' or as_read = '1') then
                            state <= precharge_all;
                        elsif ref_req = '0' and as_write = '1' and as_address(22 downto 11) = open_row and as_address(10 downto 9) = open_bank then
                            int_address <= as_address;
                            int_writedata <= as_writedata;
                            int_byteenable <= as_byteenable;
                            state <= write;
                        elsif wait_counter = 0 and as_write = '1' then
                            state <= precharge_all;
                        end if;
                    when precharge_all =>
                        state <= wait_precharge;
                    when wait_precharge =>
                        state <= idle;
                    when others=>
                        null;
                end case;
            end if;
        end if;
    end process;

    --data from the ram needs to be sampled on the falling edge of the controller clock for proper operation
    process(clk)
    begin
        if falling_edge(clk) then
            int_readdata <= ram_dq;
        end if;
    end process;

    --process generating the command sequence for the SDRAM
    ram_cke <= '1';
    ram_cs_n <= ram_cmd(3);
    ram_ras_n <= ram_cmd(2);
    ram_cas_n <= ram_cmd(1);
    ram_we_n <= ram_cmd(0);
    OUTPUTS : process(clk, reset)
    begin
        if reset = '1' then
            ram_addr <= (others=>'0');
            ram_cmd <= "1111";
            ram_ba <= (others=>'0');
            ram_dq <= (others=>'Z');
            ram_dqm <= (others=>'1');
        elsif rising_edge(clk) then
            if init_state = init_pre then
                ram_cmd <= "0010"; --precharge
                ram_addr <= (10=>'1', others=>'0');
            elsif init_state = init_ref then
                ram_cmd <= "0001"; --refresh
            elsif init_state = init_mode then
                ram_cmd <= "0000"; --mode set
                ram_addr <= "000000110000"; --no burst, three cycles latency
            elsif init_state = init_done then
                if state = ref then
                    ram_cmd <= "0001"; --refresh
                elsif state = act then
                    ram_cmd <= "0011"; --activate
                    ram_addr <= int_address(22 downto 11);
                    ram_ba <= int_address(10 downto 9);
                elsif state = read then
                    ram_cmd <= "0101"; --read
                    ram_addr <= "000"&int_address(8 downto 0);
                    ram_dqm <= "0000";
                elsif state = write then
                    ram_cmd <= "0100"; --write
                    ram_addr <= "000"&int_address(8 downto 0);
                    ram_dq <= int_writedata;
                    ram_dqm <= not int_byteenable;
                elsif state = precharge_all then
                    ram_cmd <= "0010"; --precharge
                    ram_addr <= "010"&int_address(8 downto 0);
                    ram_dqm <= "1111";
                else
                    ram_cmd <= "1111"; --nop
                    ram_dq <= (others=>'Z');
                end if;
            else
                ram_cmd <= "1111"; --nop
            end if;
        end if;
    end process;
end arch;

 

posted @ 2015-11-04 08:45 carprog 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏