There has been an increasing demand to add multiple Secure Digital (SD) devices in a single system. Whether the system application calls for a combination of SD memory ports, 802.11 SDIO cards or any other SDIO expansion cards, there is no question that the SD protocol is currently hitting its stride. The problem, however, is that most host devices (i.e. Intel PXA270, TI OMAP, or Qualcomm MSM processors) only provide a single SD interface. Fortunately, CoolRunner-II CPLDs can be used to allow host devices to support any number of SD devices. This application note details a scalable, auto-sensing bidirectional multiplexer based design.
Creating an SD Multiplexer Using CoolRunner-II Figure 1 shows a generalized CoolRunner™-II usage model to incorporate any number of SD ports for a given host device that only has a single native SD interface. The CoolRunner-II CPLD is placed between the host controller and the SD devices. As such, the CoolRunner-II part performs a bidirectional multiplexing function, allowing the host to communicate with any selected SD Device. More importantly, this design has no directional control pins, which means that the CoolRunner-II automatically detects the direction of data flow.
This implementation is extremely flexible and scalable, meaning that the number of SD ports can be increased or decreased as desired. The design also supports any of the defined SD card modes -- SPI, 1-bit, or 4-bit data modes. While the primary purpose of using a CoolRunner-II device in this type of application is to provide additional SD ports to the host controller, secondary benefits include level translation and logic isolation between the host and the SD card. Figure 1 shows the case where the host is 1.8V, but the SD Devices are 3.3V. CoolRunner-II CPLDs provide negligible standby current and ultra low dynamic power consumption. Hence, incorporating a CoolRunner-II CPLD will not have a significant impact upon your power budget.
Compliance With the SDA Specification
The SDA specification states that one SD bus can only support one SD device. The clock pin can be shared, but DAT[3:0] and CMD lines must be unique for every SD device. See Figure 2 for additional details.
This reference design is fully compliant with the SDA Specification. The following section will show you how to satisfy the above requirements while supporting any number of SD devices using a controller with a single bus.
A block diagram showing typical use of this design for two SD devices sharing the same SD host interface can be seen in Figure 3. Conceptually, the design can be viewed and used as a bidirectional multiplexer. The host device controls the CoolRunner-II CPLD via the ’Select’ signals, thereby dictating which SD device to communicate with. Once an SD device has been selected, the logic in the CoolRunner-II device automatically detects the direction of data flow, and allows data to flow accordingly (either from the host to the SD card or from the SD card to the host). A directional control pin is not required, thereby making this design easy to use.
The host can access each SD device individually without affecting the state of the other when the multiplexer is switched accordingly. If neither the host nor the SD is driving data, the CoolRunner-II CPLD allows the system to be in the default high impedance with weak pull-up state. The primary purpose of this circuit is to provide additional SD capability to the host, but this circuit can also be used to provide level translation and/or logic isolation.
Figure 4 shows the actual logic circuit for a 1:2 bidirectional multiplexer design, which can be found described using VHDL (see “VHDL Download”).
In the initial condition or idle state, the Host and SD Cards should be high impedance with a weak pull-up.
Hence, the circuit in Figure 4 is designed to tristate the CoolRunner-II device’s output buffers, thereby allowing the external pull-up resistors to take effect.
Register A (A_REG) and Register B (B_REG) are both designed to be initialized to logic ’0’ upon power-up.
The SD Cards are selected via the ’Select’ inputs to the CPLD.
When ’Select’ is logic ’0’, SD1 is chosen and when ’Select’ is logic ’1’, the SD2 device is chosen.
For simplicity while describing this circuit, let us assume in the following discussion that the Host is only choosing to communicate with SD1. < ’Select’ is logic ’0’ >
The autodirectional control aspect of this design is implemented in the following manner -- A transaction is initiated when either the host or SD1 drives Low.
For example, if the host wants to send data to the SD1 device, the host would begin by driving the A side Low.
Upon driving Low, the logic in the circuit detects the Low going edge and responds by enabling the ’B’ output buffer,
but continues to keep the ’A’ output buffer disabled.
Specifically, when A is driven Low, a rising edge is delivered to the clock input of A_REG.
After clocking, A_REG’s Q output becomes logic ’1’ and therefore prevents B_REG from receiving a clocking event.
In parallel with the A_REG clocking and triggering, gate B1 outputs a logic ’1’ when A goes Low.
This enables the ’B’ Output Buffer and, ultimately, B will follow A and drive Low.
Conversely, when it is driven from Low to High, gate B1 outputs a Low and tristates the B output buffer.
This forces B to go High (via the external pull-up resistor).
Once the A and B sides are both High, A_REG and B_REG are reset to 0.
This process is repeated indefinitely.
The reverse happens when SD1 attempts to drive data toward the host.
Additionally, if the host wishes to communicate with the SD2 device,
the ’Select’ inputs to the circuit are set to a logic ’1’ and the sequence of events are similar to the above.
Functional and timing simulations have been extensively performed on this circuit using ModelSim,
and test stimuli have been included with the VHDL download. Figure 5 shows some simulation results.
In the first part of Figure 5, the Select input is held Low.
A dotted white line denotes a "Weak 1" condition, or, in other words, represents a pulled up state.
In the first transaction, the host attempts to drive data toward SD1, and SD1 follows accordingly.
Immediately after, the SD1 device attempts to drive data toward the host, and the host follows.
Similar events happen when the Select input is driven High.
The host drives data toward the SD2 device, then the SD2 device drives data toward the host.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Company: -- Engineer: -- -- Create Date: 13:34:41 05/10/2006 -- Design Name: -- Module Name: SDIO - Behavioral -- Project Name: -- Target Devices: -- Tool versions: -- Description: -- -- Dependencies: -- -- Revision: -- Revision 0.01 - File Created -- Additional Comments: -- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- library IEEE; use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.ALL; use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_ARITH.ALL; use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_UNSIGNED.ALL; ---- Uncomment the following library declaration if instantiating ---- any Xilinx primitives in this code. library UNISIM; use UNISIM.VComponents.all; entity SDIO2 is Port ( h_clk : in STD_LOGIC;
h1_cmd : inout STD_LOGIC; h1_dat3 : inout STD_LOGIC; h1_dat2 : inout STD_LOGIC; h1_dat1 : inout STD_LOGIC; h1_dat0 : inout STD_LOGIC;
c1_clk : out STD_LOGIC; c1_cmd : inout STD_LOGIC; c1_dat3 : inout STD_LOGIC; c1_dat2 : inout STD_LOGIC; c1_dat1 : inout STD_LOGIC; c1_dat0 : inout STD_LOGIC;
-- h2_cmd : inout STD_LOGIC; h2_dat3 : inout STD_LOGIC; h2_dat2 : inout STD_LOGIC; h2_dat1 : inout STD_LOGIC; h2_dat0 : inout STD_LOGIC;
c2_clk : out STD_LOGIC; c2_cmd : inout STD_LOGIC; c2_dat3 : inout STD_LOGIC; c2_dat2 : inout STD_LOGIC; c2_dat1 : inout STD_LOGIC; c2_dat0 : inout STD_LOGIC;
sel : in STD_LOGIC --test : in STD_LOGIC --simulation purpose only ); attribute KEEP: string; end SDIO2; architecture Behavioral of SDIO2 is signal test: std_logic; signal h1_cmd_oe, h1_cmd_reg, h1_cmd_clk, h1_cmd_buf, h1_cmd_reset: std_logic; signal c1_cmd_oe, c1_cmd_reg, c1_cmd_clk, c1_cmd_buf, c1_cmd_reset: std_logic; attribute KEEP of h1_cmd_buf: signal is "TRUE"; attribute KEEP of c1_cmd_buf: signal is "TRUE"; signal h1_dat3_oe, h1_dat3_reg, h1_dat3_clk, h1_dat3_reset: std_logic; signal c1_dat3_oe, c1_dat3_reg, c1_dat3_clk, c1_dat3_reset: std_logic; signal h1_dat2_oe: std_logic; signal c1_dat2_oe: std_logic; signal h1_dat1_oe: std_logic; signal c1_dat1_oe: std_logic; signal h1_dat0_oe: std_logic; signal c1_dat0_oe: std_logic; ------ signal h2_cmd_oe, h2_cmd_reg, h2_cmd_clk, h2_cmd_buf, h2_cmd_reset: std_logic; signal c2_cmd_oe, c2_cmd_reg, c2_cmd_clk, c2_cmd_buf, c2_cmd_reset: std_logic; attribute KEEP of h2_cmd_buf: signal is "TRUE"; attribute KEEP of c2_cmd_buf: signal is "TRUE"; signal h2_dat3_oe, h2_dat3_reg, h2_dat3_clk, h2_dat3_reset: std_logic; signal c2_dat3_oe, c2_dat3_reg, c2_dat3_clk, c2_dat3_reset: std_logic; signal h2_dat2_oe: std_logic; signal c2_dat2_oe: std_logic; signal h2_dat1_oe: std_logic; signal c2_dat1_oe: std_logic; signal h2_dat0_oe: std_logic; signal c2_dat0_oe: std_logic; begin test <= '0'; c1_clk <= h_clk and not sel; -- h1_cmd_oe <= not h1_cmd_reg and not c1_cmd and not test and not sel; h1_cmd <= '0' when (h1_cmd_oe = '1') else 'Z'; h1_cmd_clk <= not h1_cmd_reg and not c1_cmd_reg and not h1_cmd_buf; h1_cmd_reset <= h1_cmd and c1_cmd; h1_cmd_inst : buf port map( O => h1_cmd_buf, I => h1_cmd ); process(h1_cmd_clk, h1_cmd_reset) begin if(h1_cmd_reset = '1') then h1_cmd_reg <= '0'; elsif(h1_cmd_clk'event and h1_cmd_clk = '1') then h1_cmd_reg <= '1'; end if; end process; -- c1_cmd_oe <= not c1_cmd_reg and not h1_cmd and not test and not sel; c1_cmd <= '0' when (c1_cmd_oe = '1') else 'Z'; c1_cmd_clk <= not c1_cmd_reg and not h1_cmd_reg and not c1_cmd_buf; c1_cmd_reset <= c1_cmd and h1_cmd; c1_cmd_inst : buf port map( O => c1_cmd_buf, I => c1_cmd ); process(c1_cmd_clk, c1_cmd_reset) begin if(c1_cmd_reset = '1') then c1_cmd_reg <= '0'; elsif(c1_cmd_clk'event and c1_cmd_clk = '1') then c1_cmd_reg <= '1'; end if; end process; -- h1_dat3_oe <= not h1_dat3_reg and not c1_dat3 and not test and not sel; h1_dat3 <= '0' when (h1_dat3_oe = '1') else 'Z'; h1_dat3_clk <= not h1_dat3_reg and not c1_dat3_reg and ((not h1_dat3) or (not h1_dat2) or (not h1_dat1) or (not h1_dat0)); h1_dat3_reset <= h1_dat3 and c1_dat3 and h1_dat2 and c1_dat2 and h1_dat1 and c1_dat1 and h1_dat0 and c1_dat0; process(h1_dat3_clk, h1_dat3_reset) begin if(h1_dat3_reset = '1') then h1_dat3_reg <= '0'; elsif(h1_dat3_clk'event and h1_dat3_clk = '1') then h1_dat3_reg <= '1'; end if; end process; -- c1_dat3_oe <= not c1_dat3_reg and not h1_dat3 and not test and not sel; c1_dat3 <= '0' when (c1_dat3_oe = '1') else 'Z'; c1_dat3_clk <= not c1_dat3_reg and not h1_dat3_reg and ((not c1_dat3) or (not c1_dat2) or (not c1_dat1) or (not c1_dat0)); c1_dat3_reset <= h1_dat3 and c1_dat3 and h1_dat2 and c1_dat2 and h1_dat1 and c1_dat1 and h1_dat0 and c1_dat0; process(c1_dat3_clk, c1_dat3_reset) begin if(c1_dat3_reset = '1') then c1_dat3_reg <= '0'; elsif(c1_dat3_clk'event and c1_dat3_clk = '1') then c1_dat3_reg <= '1'; end if; end process; -- h1_dat2_oe <= not h1_dat3_reg and not c1_dat2 and not test and not sel; h1_dat2 <= '0' when (h1_dat2_oe = '1') else 'Z'; -- c1_dat2_oe <= not c1_dat3_reg and not h1_dat2 and not test and not sel; c1_dat2 <= '0' when (c1_dat2_oe = '1') else 'Z'; -- h1_dat1_oe <= not h1_dat3_reg and not c1_dat1 and not test and not sel; h1_dat1 <= '0' when (h1_dat1_oe = '1') else 'Z'; -- c1_dat1_oe <= not c1_dat3_reg and not h1_dat1 and not test and not sel; c1_dat1 <= '0' when (c1_dat1_oe = '1') else 'Z'; -- h1_dat0_oe <= not h1_dat3_reg and not c1_dat0 and not test and not sel; h1_dat0 <= '0' when (h1_dat0_oe = '1') else 'Z'; -- c1_dat0_oe <= not c1_dat3_reg and not h1_dat0 and not test and not sel; c1_dat0 <= '0' when (c1_dat0_oe = '1') else 'Z'; ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- c2_clk <= h_clk and sel; ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- h2_cmd_oe <= not h2_cmd_reg and not c2_cmd and not test and sel; h2_cmd <= '0' when (h2_cmd_oe = '1') else 'Z'; h2_cmd_clk <= not h2_cmd_reg and not c2_cmd_reg and not h2_cmd_buf; h2_cmd_reset <= h2_cmd and c2_cmd; h2_cmd_inst : buf port map( O => h2_cmd_buf, I => h2_cmd ); process(h2_cmd_clk, h2_cmd_reset) begin if(h2_cmd_reset = '1') then h2_cmd_reg <= '0'; elsif(h2_cmd_clk'event and h2_cmd_clk = '1') then h2_cmd_reg <= '1'; end if; end process; -- c2_cmd_oe <= not c2_cmd_reg and not h2_cmd and not test and sel; c2_cmd <= '0' when (c2_cmd_oe = '1') else 'Z'; c2_cmd_clk <= not c2_cmd_reg and not h2_cmd_reg and not c2_cmd_buf; c2_cmd_reset <= c2_cmd and h2_cmd; c2_cmd_inst : buf port map( O => c2_cmd_buf, I => c2_cmd ); process(c2_cmd_clk, c2_cmd_reset) begin if(c2_cmd_reset = '1') then c2_cmd_reg <= '0'; elsif(c2_cmd_clk'event and c2_cmd_clk = '1') then c2_cmd_reg <= '1'; end if; end process; -- h2_dat3_oe <= not h2_dat3_reg and not c2_dat3 and not test and sel; h2_dat3 <= '0' when (h2_dat3_oe = '1') else 'Z'; h2_dat3_clk <= not h2_dat3_reg and not c2_dat3_reg and ((not h2_dat3) or (not h2_dat2) or (not h2_dat1) or (not h2_dat0)); h2_dat3_reset <= h2_dat3 and c2_dat3 and h2_dat2 and c2_dat2 and h2_dat1 and c2_dat1 and h2_dat0 and c2_dat0; process(h2_dat3_clk, h2_dat3_reset) begin if(h2_dat3_reset = '1') then h2_dat3_reg <= '0'; elsif(h2_dat3_clk'event and h2_dat3_clk = '1') then h2_dat3_reg <= '1'; end if; end process; -- c2_dat3_oe <= not c2_dat3_reg and not h2_dat3 and not test and sel; c2_dat3 <= '0' when (c2_dat3_oe = '1') else 'Z'; c2_dat3_clk <= not c2_dat3_reg and not h2_dat3_reg and ((not c2_dat3) or (not c2_dat2) or (not c2_dat1) or (not c2_dat0)); c2_dat3_reset <= h2_dat3 and c2_dat3 and h2_dat2 and c2_dat2 and h2_dat1 and c2_dat1 and h2_dat0 and c2_dat0; process(c2_dat3_clk, c2_dat3_reset) begin if(c2_dat3_reset = '1') then c2_dat3_reg <= '0'; elsif(c2_dat3_clk'event and c2_dat3_clk = '1') then c2_dat3_reg <= '1'; end if; end process; -- h2_dat2_oe <= not h2_dat3_reg and not c2_dat2 and not test and sel; h2_dat2 <= '0' when (h2_dat2_oe = '1') else 'Z'; -- c2_dat2_oe <= not c2_dat3_reg and not h2_dat2 and not test and sel; c2_dat2 <= '0' when (c2_dat2_oe = '1') else 'Z'; -- h2_dat1_oe <= not h2_dat3_reg and not c2_dat1 and not test and sel; h2_dat1 <= '0' when (h2_dat1_oe = '1') else 'Z'; -- c2_dat1_oe <= not c2_dat3_reg and not h2_dat1 and not test and sel; c2_dat1 <= '0' when (c2_dat1_oe = '1') else 'Z'; -- h2_dat0_oe <= not h2_dat3_reg and not c2_dat0 and not test and sel; h2_dat0 <= '0' when (h2_dat0_oe = '1') else 'Z'; -- c2_dat0_oe <= not c2_dat3_reg and not h2_dat0 and not test and sel; c2_dat0 <= '0' when (c2_dat0_oe = '1') else 'Z'; end Behavioral;
Application Note 509
This application note describes how to use Altera® MAX® II CPLDs to implement a Secure Digital (SD) or Secure Digital Input Output (SDIO) device multiplexer to multiplex two (or more) SD/SDIO devices to an SD/SDIO host equipped with a single SD interface. This document also illustrates how the select line of this multiplexer can be controlled through an I2C interface.
It may often be required for an SD host controller with a single SD interface to support more than one SD device. The SD protocol and standards recommend doing this using one of two methods. One method is to use a bidirectional multiplexer between the SD host and the multiple SD devices and to use this multiplexer to multiplex the data lines. This is performed while the clock line is connected to each of the multiple SD devices. Another method is to retain the data lines connected to the multiple SD devices while multiplexing the unidirectional clock line. The second method is used in this design example, as illustrated in the block diagram in Figure 1.
The “MUX” in Figure 1 on page 1 represents a unidirectional multiplexer that is implemented using a MAX II CPLD. The select line for the multiplexer is controlled through an I2C interface, which is also implemented in the same CPLD. The multiplexer is thus an I2C slave, and the clock line from the host controller is either connected to the SD Device A or the SD Device B, depending on the I2C data received. Figure 2 illustrates the block diagram of the multiplexer implementation in the MAX II CPLD.