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关于ASP.Net Core Web及API身份认证的解决方案

Posted on 2018-06-15 11:37 李朝强 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏

     6月15日,在端午节前的最后一个工作日,想起有段日子没有写过文章了,倒有些荒疏了。今借夏日蒸蒸之气,偷得浮生半日悠闲。闲话就说到这里吧,提前祝大家端午愉快(屈原听了该不高兴了:))!
.NetCore自发布以来,颇受关注,现在.Net Core2.0已经正式发布,边迫不及待的将.Net跨平台移植的工作进行到底。想来,也费不了多少事儿。我经常和同事们说,要敢于尝试新鲜事物,不阴损守旧,方能使自己不断进步,站在队伍的前列。下面就关于Asp.Net Core在Web 及API项目上身份认证的问题做下简单的阐述。

一、Asp.Net Core Web项目的登录认证

    在MVC Web项目中,做用户登录授权,是必不可少的工作,不知道大家平时是怎么做的,我想,大多朋友还是使用微软提供的一套认证机制,可以省去很多功夫。从WebForm时代的Form身份认证,无非是通过客户端Cookie中存储认证票据,在请求受保护的资源时,通过Cookie中携带的身份票据,再有Asp.net的认证模块,完整对请求者的身份认证。这一过程,是很清晰简单的了。在MVC中,大多是通过中间件(MiddleWare)来完整认证授权过程。在ASP.NETMVC中,我们了解到基于声明的授权认证(Claim),这种认证方式,好处在于,我们想在用户授权时,存储多个属性信息,只需要添加多个声明即可,我们在微软的认证中间件中,看到的都是定义好的常量,当然,我们可以定义自己的ClaimTypes。然我们看看微软在.NetCore中定义的一些声明吧:

 //
        // Summary:
        //     http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2009/09/identity/claims/actor.
        public const string Actor = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2009/09/identity/claims/actor";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the postal code of an entity, http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/postalcode.
        public const string PostalCode = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/postalcode";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the primary group SID of an entity, http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/primarygroupsid.
        public const string PrimaryGroupSid = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/primarygroupsid";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the primary SID of an entity, http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/primarysid.
        public const string PrimarySid = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/primarysid";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the role of an entity, http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/role.
        public const string Role = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/role";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies an RSA key, http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/rsa.
        public const string Rsa = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/rsa";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies a serial number, http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/serialnumber.
        public const string SerialNumber = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/serialnumber";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies a security identifier (SID), http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/sid.
        public const string Sid = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/sid";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies a service principal name (SPN) claim, http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/spn.
        public const string Spn = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/spn";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the state or province in which an entity resides,
        //     http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/stateorprovince.
        public const string StateOrProvince = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/stateorprovince";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the street address of an entity, http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/streetaddress.
        public const string StreetAddress = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/streetaddress";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the surname of an entity, http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/surname.
        public const string Surname = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/surname";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that identifies the system entity, http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/system.
        public const string System = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/system";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies a thumbprint, http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/thumbprint.
        //     A thumbprint is a globally unique SHA-1 hash of an X.509 certificate.
        public const string Thumbprint = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/thumbprint";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies a user principal name (UPN), http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/upn.
        public const string Upn = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/upn";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies a URI, http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/uri.
        public const string Uri = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/uri";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/userdata.
        public const string UserData = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/userdata";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/version.
        public const string Version = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/version";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the webpage of an entity, http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/webpage.
        public const string Webpage = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/webpage";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the Windows domain account name of an entity,
        //     http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/windowsaccountname.
        public const string WindowsAccountName = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/windowsaccountname";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/windowsdeviceclaim.
        public const string WindowsDeviceClaim = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/windowsdeviceclaim";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/windowsdevicegroup.
        public const string WindowsDeviceGroup = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/windowsdevicegroup";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/windowsfqbnversion.
        public const string WindowsFqbnVersion = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/windowsfqbnversion";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/windowssubauthority.
        public const string WindowsSubAuthority = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/windowssubauthority";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the alternative phone number of an entity,
        //     http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/otherphone.
        public const string OtherPhone = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/otherphone";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the name of an entity, http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/nameidentifier.
        public const string NameIdentifier = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/nameidentifier";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the name of an entity, http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/name.
        public const string Name = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/name";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the mobile phone number of an entity, http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/mobilephone.
        public const string MobilePhone = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/mobilephone";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the anonymous user; http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/anonymous.
        public const string Anonymous = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/anonymous";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies details about whether an identity is authenticated,
        //     http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/authenticated.
        public const string Authentication = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/authentication";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the instant at which an entity was authenticated;
        //     http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/authenticationinstant.
        public const string AuthenticationInstant = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/authenticationinstant";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the method with which an entity was authenticated;
        //     http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/authenticationmethod.
        public const string AuthenticationMethod = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/authenticationmethod";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies an authorization decision on an entity; http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/authorizationdecision.
        public const string AuthorizationDecision = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/authorizationdecision";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the cookie path; http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/cookiepath.
        public const string CookiePath = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/cookiepath";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the country/region in which an entity resides,
        //     http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/country.
        public const string Country = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/country";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the date of birth of an entity, http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/dateofbirth.
        public const string DateOfBirth = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/dateofbirth";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the deny-only primary group SID on an entity;
        //     http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/denyonlyprimarygroupsid.
        //     A deny-only SID denies the specified entity to a securable object.
        public const string DenyOnlyPrimaryGroupSid = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/denyonlyprimarygroupsid";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the deny-only primary SID on an entity; http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/denyonlyprimarysid.
        //     A deny-only SID denies the specified entity to a securable object.
        public const string DenyOnlyPrimarySid = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/denyonlyprimarysid";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies a deny-only security identifier (SID) for
        //     an entity, http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/denyonlysid.
        //     A deny-only SID denies the specified entity to a securable object.
        public const string DenyOnlySid = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/denyonlysid";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/windowsuserclaim.
        public const string WindowsUserClaim = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/windowsuserclaim";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/denyonlywindowsdevicegroup.
        public const string DenyOnlyWindowsDeviceGroup = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/denyonlywindowsdevicegroup";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/dsa.
        public const string Dsa = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/dsa";
        //
        // Summary:
        //     The URI for a claim that specifies the email address of an entity, http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/email.
        public const string Email = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2005/05/identity/claims/emailaddress";

    那么我们在Asp.Net Core项目中的认证,也是比较简单的。也是通过HttpContext的扩展方法SignInAsync,来传入声明的身份信息。要使用的微软的认证组件,我们在.Net Core Web项目中,做如下改动:

首先,在Start.cs类中,添加服务,具体代码如下:

         /// <summary>
        /// 
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="services"></param>
        public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
        {
            services.AddAuthentication(CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme)
            .AddCookie(CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme, o =>
            {
                o.Cookie.Name = "_AdminTicketCookie";
                o.LoginPath = new PathString("/Account/Login");
                o.LogoutPath = new PathString("/Account/Login");
                o.AccessDeniedPath = new PathString("/Error/Forbidden");
            });
            services.AddTransient<TiKu.Application.Interfaces.IAdminService, TiKu.Application.AdminService>();
            services.AddMvc();
        }

    其次,添加认证中间件

        /// <summary>
        /// This method gets called by the runtime. Use this method to configure the HTTP request pipeline.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="app"></param>
        /// <param name="env"></param>
        public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env, ILoggerFactory loggerFactory)
        {

            if (env.IsDevelopment())
            {
                app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
            }
            else
            {
                app.UseExceptionHandler("/Home/Error");
            }
            app.UseStaticFiles();
            app.UseAuthentication();//添加认证中间件
            app.UseMvc(routes =>
            {
                routes.MapRoute(
                    name: "default",
                    template: "{controller=Home}/{action=Index}/{id?}");
            });
            
        }

  最后,在用户登录的地方,登录成功后,调用HttpContext的SignIn方法,将授权信息写入Cookie,示例代码如下:

        /// <summary>
        /// <![CDATA[登陆]]>
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="model"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        [HttpPost]
        [ValidateAntiForgeryToken]
        public async Task<ActionResult> Login(Models.LoginViewModel model)
        {
            try
            {
                //模型验证通过后
                if (ModelState.IsValid)
                {
                    model.password = TiKu.Common.Security.MD5.Md5(model.password);//MD5加密
                    TiKu.Domain.Entity.tb_Admin admin = await _AdminService.CheckAccountAndPassword(account: model.account, password: model.password);
                    //验证用户名密码
                    if (admin != null)
                    {
                        var identity = new ClaimsIdentity(CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme);//一定要声明AuthenticationScheme
                        identity.AddClaim(new Claim(ClaimTypes.Name, admin.Account));
                        identity.AddClaim(new Claim(ClaimTypes.NameIdentifier, admin.Id.ToString()));

                        await HttpContext.SignInAsync(identity.AuthenticationType,
                                                      new ClaimsPrincipal(identity),
                                                      new AuthenticationProperties
                                                      {
                                                          IsPersistent = model.isPersistent,
                                                          RedirectUri = "/Home/Index",
                                                          ExpiresUtc = new System.DateTimeOffset(dateTime: DateTime.Now.AddHours(6)),
                                                      });
                        //更新登陆时间
                        await _AdminService.UpdateLastLoginTime(id: admin.Id);
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        await HttpContext.ChallengeAsync(CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme);
                        ModelState.AddModelError("", "用户名或密码错误!");
                    }
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                ModelState.AddModelError("", "用户名或密码错误!");
                _Logger.Error("用户登录时发生错误!", ex);
            }
            return View(model);
        }

  这样就完成了Asp.net core web项目的登录认证工作。

二、Asp.Net Core WebApi基于JWT的认证授权

      关于JWT的工作原理,大家可以自行了解(https://jwt.io/)。JWT实现了服务端无状态,在分布式服务,会话一致性,单点登录等方面,凸显优势,不占用服务端资源。使用JWT需要注意的是,令牌过期后刷新,以及更改密码后令牌未过期的处理问题。

这里,我以JWT作为.net core webapi项目的认证方式。

首先,我再Api项目中新建了一个名为OAuthController的控制器,定义一个Action名为Token的方法,用来让客户端获取令牌之用,具体代码如下:

        /// <summary>
        /// <![CDATA[获取访问令牌]]>
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="user"></param>
        /// <param name="password"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        [HttpPost]
        public async Task<TiKu.Domain.ValueObject.RestfulData<TiKu.Domain.ValueObject.AccessTokenObj>> Token(string user, string password)
        {
            var result = new TiKu.Domain.ValueObject.RestfulData<TiKu.Domain.ValueObject.AccessTokenObj>();
            try
            {
                if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(user)) throw new ArgumentNullException("user", "用户名不能为空!");
                if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(password)) throw new ArgumentNullException("password", "密码不能为空!");

                //验证用户名和密码
                var userInfo = await _UserService.CheckUserAndPassword(mobile: user, password: password);
                var claims = new Claim[]
                {
                    new Claim(ClaimTypes.Name,user),
                    new Claim(ClaimTypes.NameIdentifier,userInfo.Id.ToString()),
                };

                var key = new SymmetricSecurityKey(System.Text.Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(Configuration["JwtSecurityKey"]));
                var expires = DateTime.Now.AddDays(28);//
                var token = new JwtSecurityToken(
                            issuer: Configuration["issuer"],
                            audience: Configuration["audience"],
                            claims: claims,
                            notBefore: DateTime.Now,
                            expires: expires,
                            signingCredentials: new SigningCredentials(key, SecurityAlgorithms.HmacSha256));

                //生成Token
                string jwtToken = new JwtSecurityTokenHandler().WriteToken(token);
                result.code = 1;
                result.data = new Domain.ValueObject.AccessTokenObj() { AccessToken = jwtToken, Expires = TiKu.Common.Utility.Util.ToUnixTime(expires) };
                result.message = "授权成功!";
                return result;
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                result.message = ex.Message;
                result.code = 0;
                logger.Error("获取访问令牌时发生错误!", ex);
                return result;
            }
        }

  这里,我定义了一个统一返回数据格式的模型-RestfulData,其中有不返回数据data的RestfulData和带data数据的RestfulData<T>,以及返回集合类型的RestfulArray<T>,具体代码如下:

  /// <summary>
    /// 
    /// </summary>
    public class RestfulData
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// <![CDATA[错误码]]>
        /// </summary>
        public int code { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        ///<![CDATA[消息]]>
        /// </summary>
        public string message { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// <![CDATA[相关的链接帮助地址]]>
        /// </summary>
        public string url { get; set; }

    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 
    /// </summary>
    /// <typeparam name="T"></typeparam>
    public class RestfulData<T> : RestfulData
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// <![CDATA[数据]]>
        /// </summary>
        public virtual T data { get; set; }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// <![CDATA[返回数组]]>
    /// </summary>
    /// <typeparam name="T"></typeparam>
    public class RestfulArray<T> : ResultData<IEnumerable<T>>
    {

    }

  

配置JWT认证服务,在Start.cs启动类中,配置如下:

/// <summary>
        /// 
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="services"></param>
        public IServiceProvider ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
        {
            services.AddSingleton<IConfiguration>(Configuration);
            services.AddMemoryCache();//添加基于内存的缓存支持
            services.AddAutofac();

            //配置授权
            services.AddAuthentication(options =>
            {
                options.DefaultAuthenticateScheme = "JwtBearer";
                options.DefaultChallengeScheme = "JwtBearer";

            }).AddJwtBearer("JwtBearer",
            (jwtBearerOptions) =>
            {
                jwtBearerOptions.TokenValidationParameters = new TokenValidationParameters
                {
                    ValidateIssuerSigningKey = true,
                    IssuerSigningKey = new SymmetricSecurityKey(System.Text.Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(Configuration["JwtSecurityKey"])),//秘钥
                    ValidateIssuer = true,
                    ValidIssuer = Configuration["issuer"],
                    ValidateAudience = true,
                    ValidAudience = Configuration["audience"],
                    ValidateLifetime = true,
                    ClockSkew = TimeSpan.FromMinutes(5)
                };
            });

            services.AddMvc();

            //IOC Autofac
            var builder = new ContainerBuilder();
            builder.Populate(services);

            //注册应用服务
            var assemblyApplicationService = System.Reflection.Assembly.Load("TiKu.Application");
            builder.RegisterAssemblyTypes(assemblyApplicationService).AsImplementedInterfaces();

            var container = builder.Build();
            Container = container;

            return new AutofacServiceProvider(container);
        }

  上面使用了IOC容器Autofac。

其次,配置认证中间件:

        /// <summary>
        /// 
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="app"></param>
        /// <param name="env"></param>
        public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env)
        {
            if (env.IsDevelopment())
            {
                app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
            }
            app.UseAuthentication();//配置授权
            //处理异常
            app.UseStatusCodePages(new StatusCodePagesOptions()
            {
                HandleAsync = (context) =>
                {
                    if (context.HttpContext.Response.StatusCode == 401)
                    {
                        using (System.IO.StreamWriter sw = new System.IO.StreamWriter(context.HttpContext.Response.Body))
                        {
                            sw.Write(Newtonsoft.Json.JsonConvert.SerializeObject(new
                            {
                                status = 401,
                                message = "access denied!",
                            }));
                        }
                    }
                    return System.Threading.Tasks.Task.Delay(0);
                }
            });
            app.UseMvc(routes =>
            {
                routes.MapRoute(name: "default", template: "api/{controller=Home}/{action=Index}/{id?}");
                routes.MapRoute(name: "mvc", template: "{controller=Home}/{action=Index}/{id?}");
            });
        }  

为了测试,我们给ValuesController控制器添加Authorize特性。

    /// <summary>
    /// 
    /// </summary>
    [Authorize]
    [Route("api/[controller]")]
    public class ValuesController : Controller
    {

        // GET api/values
        [HttpGet]
        public IEnumerable<string> Get()
        {
            return new string[] { "value1", "value2" };
        }
   } 

最后,让我们测试下API的授权,这里,我以Ajax模拟API的调用:

script type="text/javascript">
    //获取令牌
    $.post("/oauth/token", $.param({ user: "lichaoqiang", password: "fdsfds" })).done(function (data) {

        if (data.code === 1) {
            localStorage.setItem("token", data.data.accessToken);
        }
    });

    //设置HTTP头
    $.ajaxSetup({
        beforeSend: function (xhr) {
            if (localStorage.getItem("token") !== null) {
                xhr.setRequestHeader('Authorization', 'Bearer ' + localStorage.getItem("token"));
            }
        }
    });

    $.getJSON("/api/values", function (data) { console.log(data); });//获取受保护的资源
</script>

  看下效果,直接访问/api/values,会出现如下图:

    当客户请求受保护的资源时,通过HTTP header携带上token。这里需要注意的是,请求头必须是Authorization,值是Bearer空格加上token。这样访问资源时,通过HTTP header携带令牌信息,服务端,通过认证中间件,完成授权认证过程。在上面的示例中,通过向全局Ajax注册事件,将token写入请求Header。、

至此,就完成了JWT认证授权的过程,.Net Core WebAPI配置起来也很简单。