CSharpGL(31)[译]OpenGL渲染管道那些事

CSharpGL(31)[译]OpenGL渲染管道那些事

+BIT祝威+悄悄在此留下版了个权的信息说:

开始 

自认为对OpenGL的掌握到了一个小瓶颈,现在回头细细地捋一遍OpenGL渲染管道应当是一个不错的突破口。

本文通过阅读、翻译和扩展(https://www.opengl.org/wiki/Rendering_Pipeline_Overview)的方式,来逐步回顾总结一下OpenGL渲染管道,从而串联起OpenGL的所有知识点,并期望能在更高的层次上有所领悟。

另外,(https://www.opengl.org/wiki/Rendering_Pipeline_Overview)涉及的链接,我也会视情况翻译一下,琢磨一下。

为了方便对比,这里保留了英文。

下面开始吧。

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Rendering Pipeline Overview(渲染管道概览)

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The Rendering Pipeline is the sequence of steps that OpenGL takes when rendering objects. This overview will provide a high-level description of the steps in the pipeline.

渲染管道是OpenGL在渲染物体时执行的一系列步骤(阶段)。本文将从一个较高的层次描述这些步骤(阶段)。

+BIT祝威+悄悄在此留下版了个权的信息说:

Pipeline(管道)

 

Diagram of the Rendering Pipeline. The blue boxes are programmable shader stages.(渲染管道总图。蓝底色的是可编程shader阶段)

The OpenGL rendering pipeline works in the following order: (OpenGL渲染管道的各个阶段按下述顺序依次执行)

  1. Prepare vertex array data, and then render it(准备顶点数据,然后渲染之)
  2. Vertex Processing: (对顶点的处理)
    1. Each vertex is acted upon by a Vertex Shader. Each vertex in the stream is processed in turn into an output vertex.(每个顶点都由一个顶点着色器控制。顶点缓存中的各个顶点依次被转换为一个输出顶点,即由`gl_Position = xxx;`设定输出值。)
    2. Optional primitive tessellation stages.(可选的图元细分阶段)
    3. Optional Geometry Shader primitive processing. The output is a sequence of primitives.(可选的几何着色器处理阶段,其输出为一系列图元。)
  3. Vertex Post-Processing, the outputs of the last stage are adjusted or shipped to different locations. (顶点后处理,这一步骤的处理结果可能被送到不同的地方去,比如:)
    1. Transform Feedback happens here.(Transform Feedback在此发动。)
    2. Primitive Clipping, the perspective divide, and the viewport transform to window space.(图元裁剪,视角除法,还有把视口变换到窗口空间。)
  4. Primitive Assembly(图元组装)
  5. Scan conversion and primitive parameter interpolation, which generates a number of Fragments.(扫描转换和图元插值)
  6. A Fragment Shader processes each fragment. Each fragment generates a number of outputs.(一个片段着色器处理每个片段。每个片段都产生若干输出数据。)
  7. Per-Sample_Processing: (逐采样的处理)
    1. Scissor Test(裁剪测试)
    2. Stencil Test(模板测试)
    3. Depth Test(深度测试)
    4. Blending(混合)
    5. Logical Operation(逻辑操作)
    6. Write Mask(写入掩码)


+BIT祝威+悄悄在此留下版了个权的信息说:

Vertex Specification(准备顶点数据)

Main article: Vertex Specification(更多资讯,点击Vertex Specification)

The process of vertex specification is where the application sets up an ordered list of vertices to send to the pipeline. These vertices define the boundaries of a primitive.

所谓准备顶点数据,就是应用程序创建一个数组,里面写入各个顶点的信息(位置、颜色、法线等等),然后发送(glBufferData)到OpenGL管道。这些顶点就组成了若干个图元

Primitives are basic drawing shapes, like triangles, lines, and points. Exactly how the list of vertices is interpreted as primitives is handled via a later stage.

图元是OpenGL能画的最基本的图形,比如三角形、线段和点。后续步骤会解决如何解释这些顶点的问题。

This part of the pipeline deals with a number of objects like Vertex Array Objects and Vertex Buffer Objects. Vertex Array Objects define what data each vertex has, while Vertex Buffer Objects store the actual vertex data itself.

这部分的管道会和Vertex Array ObjectsVertex Buffer Objects打交道。Vertex Array Objects定义了顶点由哪些Vertex Buffer Objects组成,Vertex Buffer Objects则定义了具体的顶点数据。

A vertex's data is a series of attributes. Each attribute is a small set of data that the next stage will do computations on. While a set of attributes do specify a vertex, there is nothing that says that part of a vertex's attribute set needs to be a position or normal. Attribute data is entirely arbitrary; the only meaning assigned to any of it happens in the vertex processing stage.

顶点数据就是若干个属性。顶点的位置、颜色、法线都是顶点的属性,你还可以根据需要自定义任何属性。每个属性都是一个数组(或者数组里的一部分),在后续阶段会对之执行计算(用shader程序计算)。也只有在这些计算阶段里,这些属性才有应用层面上的含义。

Vertex Rendering(顶点渲染)

Main article: Vertex Rendering(更多资讯,点击Vertex Rendering)

Once the vertex data is properly specified, it is then rendered as a Primitive via a drawing command.

准备好了顶点数据,就可以通过绘制指令将其渲染为图元了。

+BIT祝威+悄悄在此留下版了个权的信息说:

Vertex Processing(顶点处理)

Vertices fetched due to the prior vertex rendering stage begin their processing here. The vertex processing stages are almost all programmable operations. This allows user code to customize the way vertices are processed. Each stage represents a different kind of shader operation.

前面拿到了顶点数据,现在开始处理数据。处理顶点的各个步骤几乎全部是可编程的操作。因此用户(OpenGL程序员)可以自行决定顶点的处理方式。顶点处理的每个步骤都代表着一个shader。

Many of these stages are optional.

这些步骤中,很多都是可选的。(目测只有1种shader是必选的)

Vertex shader(顶点着色器)

Main article: Vertex Shader(更多资讯,点击Vertex Shader)

Vertex shaders perform basic processing of each individual vertex. Vertex shaders receive the attribute inputs from the vertex rendering and converts each incoming vertex into a single outgoing vertex based on an arbitrary, user-defined program.

顶点着色器针对每个顶点施展相互独立的处理。顶点着色器以顶点的所有属性作为输入,输出的是gl_Position和其他可选的数据。输入到输出的程序代码完全是用户(OpenGL程序员)编写的。

Vertex shaders can have user-defined outputs, but there is also a special output that represents the final position of the vertex. If there are no subsequent vertex processing stages, vertex shaders are expected to fill in this position with the clip-space position of the vertex, for rendering purposes.

刚刚说到顶点着色器可以有若干可选的输出数据,另外还有一个特殊的输出gl_Position(顶点的最终位置)。如果不启用后续的顶点处理步骤,那么顶点处理器就必须写入gl_Position(顶点在裁剪空间下的位置)。

One limitation on vertex processing is that each input vertex must map to a specific output vertex. And because vertex shader invocations cannot share state between them, the input attributes to output vertex data mapping is 1:1. That is, if you feed the exact same attributes to the same vertex shader in the same primitive, you will get the same output vertex data. This gives implementations the right to optimize vertex processing; if they can detect that they're about to process a previously processed vertex, they can use the previously processed data stored in a post-transform cache. Thus they do not have to run the vertex processing on that data again.

关于顶点处理的一个限制是:输入一个顶点必须对应输出一个顶点。由于顶点着色器针对各个顶点的调用过程都是互相不能共享任何信息、状态的,输入的属性值和输出的顶点数据之间也是一一映射关系。这就是说,如果你给顶点着色器的相同的输入,你会得到完全相同的输出。这就使得OpenGL实现(显卡或软渲染程序)可以优化顶点处理过程:如果OpenGL检测到它即将处理一个曾经处理过的完全相同的顶点数据,它就可以直接使用缓存在post-transform cache里的结果。因此OpenGL就可以少执行一次顶点着色器程序了。

Vertex shaders are not optional.

顶点着色器是必选的。

Tessellation(曲面细分)

Tessellation

     

Core in version

4.5

Core since version

4.0

Core ARB extension

ARB_tessellation_shader

Main article: Tessellation Shader(更多资讯,点击Tessellation Shader)

Primitives can be tessellated using two shader stages and a fixed-function tessellator between them. The Tessellation Control Shader (TCS) stage comes first, and it determines the amount of tessellation to apply to a primitive, as well as ensuring connectivity between adjacent tessellated primitives. The Tessellation Evaluation Shader (TES) stage comes last, and it applies the interpolation or other operations used to compute user-defined data values for primitives generated by the fixed-function tessellation process.

顶点可以被细分,靠的是两个shader步骤及其之间的一个固定功能tessellator(原谅我不知道怎么翻译这个词)。首先是Tessellation Control Shader(TCS),它决定了一个图元被细分成多少块,并且确保互联的图元之间的关联关系(什么意思?)。然后是Tessellation Evaluation Shader(TES),它执行插值或者其他操作,最终计算出细分的图元数据。

Tessellation as a process is optional. Tessellation is considered active if a TES is active. The TCS is optional, but a TCS can only be used alongside a TES.
曲面细分是可选的。启用TES就等于启用了曲面细分。TCS是可选的,但TCS只能陪伴着TES出现。

Geometry Shader(几何着色器)

Main article: Geometry Shader(更多资讯,点击Geometry Shader)

Geometry shaders are user-defined programs that process each incoming primitive, returning zero or more output primitives.

几何着色器的输入数据是一个图元,输出是0~多个图元。

The input primitives for geometry shaders are the output primitives from a subset of the Primitive Assembly process. So if you send a triangle strip as a single primitive, what the geometry shader will see is a series of triangles.

几何着色器的输入图元的类型是图元组装步骤的一个子集。所以当你将三角形带作为一个单独的图元输送给几何着色器时,它会将其视作若干个三角形

However, there are a number of input primitive types that are defined specifically for geometry shaders. These adjacency primitives give GS's a larger view of the primitives; they provide access to vertices of primitives adjacent to the current one.

不过,有几个图元类型是几何着色器特有的。邻接图元给了GS更大的选择范围,它们提供了对与当前图元相邻的图元的处理方法。

The output of a GS is zero or more simple primitives, much like the output of primitive assembly. The GS is able to remove primitives, or tessellate them by outputting many primitives for a single input. The GS can also tinker with the vertex values themselves, either doing some of the work for the vertex shader, or just to interpolate the values when tessellating them. Geometry shaders can even convert primitives to different types; input point primitives can become triangles, or lines can become points.

几何着色器的输出是0~多个图元,这很像图元组装阶段的输出。几何着色器可以去掉原有的图元(其实,原有的图元是一定被去掉了),可以通过输出更多图元的方式来细分之。几何着色器也可以胡乱地修补顶点数据:要么接手顶点着色器的部分任务,要么通过插值的方式细分图元。几何着色器还可以把图元转换为另一种图元:输入点,输出三角形;输入线段,输出点;等等。

Geometry shaders are optional.

几何着色器是可选的。

+BIT祝威+悄悄在此留下版了个权的信息说:

Vertex post-processing(顶点后处理)

Main article: Vertex Post-Processing(更多资讯,点击Vertex Post-Processing)

After the shader-based vertex processing, vertices undergo a number of fixed-function processing steps.

在基于shader的顶点处理之后,顶点还要经历一系列的固定管道处理阶段。

Transform Feedback(这个术语还是不翻译的好)

Main article: Transform Feedback(更多资讯,点击Transform Feedback)

The outputs of the geometry shader or primitive assembly are written to a series of buffer objects that have been setup for this purpose. This is called transform feedback mode; it allows the user to do transform data via vertex and geometry shaders, then hold on to that data for use later.

如果启用Transform Feedback,几何着色器或图元组装阶段的输出会被写入某些缓存对象。此时我们称做transform feedback模式。它允许用户(OpenGL程序员)通过顶点和几何着色器变换数据并保存(以备后续使用)。

The data output into the transform feedback buffer is the data from each primitive emitted by this step.

写入transform feedback缓存的数据来自这一步计算出的所有图元。

Clipping(裁剪)

Main article: Clipping(更多资讯,点击Clipping)

The primitives are then clipped. Clipping means that primitives that lie on the boundary between the inside of the viewing volume and the outside are split into several primitives, such that the entire primitive lies in the volume. Also, the last Vertex Processing shader stage can specify user-defined clipping operations, on a per-vertex basis.

然后图元会被裁剪。裁剪就是说,那种压着视锥体边界(内部也有外部也有)的图元,会被分成若干个图元。这是为了保证所有视锥体内的图元都是完整的。另外,上文的顶点处理阶段的shader可以自定义裁剪操作(逐顶点)。

The vertex positions are transformed from clip-space to window space via the Perspective Divide and the Viewport Transform.

经过视角除法和视口变换两步,顶点的位置就从裁剪空间变换到了窗口空间

+BIT祝威+悄悄在此留下版了个权的信息说:

Primitive assembly(图元组装)

Main article: Primitive Assembly(更多资讯,点击Primitive Assembly)

Primitive assembly is the process of collecting a run of vertex data output from the prior stages and composing it into a sequence of primitives. The type of primitive the user rendered with determines how this process works.

图元组装就是把顶点组合为图元的过程。图元的类型是用户(OpenGL程序员)指定的。

The output of this process is an ordered sequence of simple primitives (lines, points, or triangles). If the input is a triangle strip primitive containing 12 vertices, for example, the output of this process will be 10 triangles.

这一步骤的输出结果是一系列有序的简单图元(线段、点或三角形等)。例如,若输入的是由包含12个顶点的三角形带,那么输出的就是10个三角形

If tessellation or geometry shaders are active, then a limited form of primitive assembly is executed before these Vertex Processing stages. This is used to feed those particular shader stages with individual primitives, rather than a sequence of vertices.

如果启用了细分或几何着色器,那么一个限制级的图元组装过程就会在那些顶点处理阶段之前执行。这是为了提供给它们需要的图元(而不是顶点)作为输入数据。

The rendering pipeline can also be aborted at this stage. This allows the use of Transform Feedback operations, without having to actually render something.

渲染管道有可能在此阶段被终止。这就允许了Transform Feedback操作,同时也不必真的渲染什么。

Face culling(面剔除)

Main article: Face Culling(更多资讯,点击Face Culling)

Triangle primitives can be culled (ie: discarded without rendering) based on the triangle's facing in window space. This allows you to avoid rendering triangles facing away from the viewer. For closed surfaces, such triangles would naturally be covered up by triangles facing the user, so there is never any need to render them. Face culling is a way to avoid rendering such primitives.

OpenGL可以根据三角形图元在窗口空间朝向来决定是不是要剔除(忽略,不画)它。这可以让你避免渲染那些背向观察者(摄像机)的三角形。对于闭合的表面,这种背向观察者的三角形总是会被朝向观察者的三角形覆盖,因此永远都不必渲染他们。面剔除就是避免渲染这种图元的一种方式。

+BIT祝威+悄悄在此留下版了个权的信息说:

Rasterization(光栅化)

Main article: Rasterization(更多资讯,点击Rasterization)

Primitives that reach this stage are then rasterized in the order in which they were given. The result of rasterizing a primitive is a sequence of Fragments.

到达这一阶段的图元依次被光栅化,得到的结果就是若干片段(片元)

A fragment is a set of state that is used to compute the final data for a pixel (or sample if multisampling is enabled) in the output framebuffer. The state for a fragment includes its position in screen-space, the sample coverage if multisampling is enabled, and a list of arbitrary data that was output from the previous vertex or geometry shader.

一个片段是若干状态的集合,用于计算最终的像素值或采样值(启用multisampling时)并写入Framebuffer。片段的状态包括:在屏幕空间的位置,采样覆盖范围(启用multisampling时),其他任何从顶点或几何着色器传送来的数据。

This last set of data is computed by interpolating between the data values in the vertices for the fragment. The style of interpolation is defined by the shader that outputed those values.

片段的数据是通过顶点数据插值计算得来的。插值的方式由输出这些数据的着色器定义。(更多资讯,点击GLSL关键字flat

+BIT祝威+悄悄在此留下版了个权的信息说:

Fragment Processing(片段处理)

Main article: Fragment Shader(更多资讯,点击Fragment Shader)

The data for each fragment from the rasterization stage is processed by a fragment shader. The output from a fragment shader is a list of colors for each of the color buffers being written to, a depth value, and a stencil value. Fragment shaders are not able to set the stencil data for a fragment, but they do have control over the color and depth values.

片段数据接下来由片段着色器处理。片段着色器的输出结果是深度值模板值和即将写入颜色缓存的颜色值。片段着色器不能设置片段的模板值,但是确实能够控制片段的颜色值和深度值。

Fragment shaders are optional. If you render without a fragment shader, the depth (and stencil) values of the fragment get their usual values. But the value of all of the colors that a fragment could have are undefined. Rendering without a fragment shader is useful when rendering only a primitive's default depth information to the depth buffer, such as when performing Occlusion Query tests.

片段着色器是可选的。(什么!!!)如果不使用片段着色器,那么深度值和模板值仍旧正常。但是所有片段的颜色值都将是未定义的。当你只需要将图元的深度信息写入深度缓存时(例如在施展遮挡查询测试时),不使用片段着色器的渲染过程就很有用。(是因为减少了渲染管道的工作量,提升了效率吧)

+BIT祝威+悄悄在此留下版了个权的信息说:

Per-Sample Operations(逐采样的操作)

Main article: Per-Sample_Processing(更多资讯,点击Per-Sample_Processing)

The fragment data output from the fragment processor is then passed through a sequence of steps.

片段着色器输出的片段数据要经过一系列后续步骤。

The first step is a sequence of culling tests; if a test is active and the fragment fails the test, the underlying pixels/samples are not updated (usually). Many of these tests are only active if the user activates them. The tests are: (第一步是一系列剔除测试。如果某项测试被启用了并且一个片段没有通过测试,那么(一般情况下)这个片段就会被抛弃,即不会影响到将来的像素/采样值。许多测试只有用户(OpenGL程序员)启用他们后才会生效。这些测试是:)

  • Pixel ownership test: Fails if the fragment's pixel is not "owned" by OpenGL (if another window is overlapping with the GL window). Always passes when using a Framebuffer Object. Failure means that the pixel contains undefined values.(像素归属测试:如果片段所在的像素不属于OpenGL(如果另一个窗口覆盖在GL窗口上),那么测试不通过。当使用Framebuffer对象时,测试永远通过。测试不通过意味着像素包含未定义的值。)
  • Scissor Test: When enabled, the test fails if the fragment's pixel lies outside of a specified rectangle of the screen.(剪切测试:启用后,若片段的像素位于指定范围之外则测试不通过。)
  • Stencil Test: When enabled, the test fails if the stencil value provided by the test does not compare as the user specifies against the stencil value from the underlying sample in the stencil buffer. Note that the stencil value in the framebuffer can still be modified even if the stencil test fails (and even if the depth test fails).(模板测试:启用后,若test提供的模板值与模板缓存中的模板值并不具有用户指定的关系,则测试不通过。注意,即使模板测试失败,Framebuffer中的模板值仍旧会被修改。)
  • Depth Test: When enabled, the test fails if the fragment's depth does not compare as the user specifies against the depth value from the underlying sample in the depth buffer.(深度测试:启用后,若片段的深度值与深度缓存中的深度值并不符合用户指定的要求,则测试不通过。)

Note: Though these are specified to happen after the Fragment Shader, they can be made to happen before the fragment shader under certain conditions. If they happen before the FS, then any culling of the fragment will also prevent the fragment shader from executing, this saving performance.(注意:尽管这些测试名义上是在片段着色器之后发生的,在某些条件下他们其实可以在片段着色器之前发生。如果他们在片段着色器之前发生,那么在任何剔除片段的测试不通过时,接下来的片段着色器都不会执行了。这可以提升性能。)

After this, color blending happens. For each fragment color value, there is a specific blending operation between it and the color already in the framebuffer at that location. Logical Operations may also take place in lieu of blending, which perform bitwise operations between the fragment colors and framebuffer colors.

在此之后,就是颜色混合阶段。对每个片段颜色值,都会对其与Framebuffer上已有的颜色值进行某种方式的混合。也可以用逻辑操作代替混合操作。逻辑操作会在片段颜色值和Framebuffer上已有的颜色值进行位操作

Lastly, the fragment data is written to the framebuffer. Masking operations allow the user to prevent writes to certain values. Color, depth, and stencil writes can be masked on and off; individual color channels can be masked as well.

最后,片段数据被写入Framebuffer。掩码操作允许用户(OpenGL程序员)指定避免写入某些值。颜色写入深度写入模板写入可以被启用或禁用,单独的颜色通道(R、G、B、A)也可以被掩护。(比如禁止写入R,那么红色不会被更改,而其他通道仍旧可以被更改。)

Retrieved from "http://www.opengl.org/wiki_132/index.php?title=Rendering_Pipeline_Overview&oldid=12521"

Category:

 

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+BIT祝威+悄悄在此留下版了个权的信息说:

下载

我整理的CSharpGL已在GitHub开源,欢迎对OpenGL有兴趣的同学加入(https://github.com/bitzhuwei/CSharpGL

 

posted @ 2016-09-18 00:06 BIT祝威 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏

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